- Johnny Appleseed
Johnny Appleseed, born John Chapman (September 26, 1774 – February 18, 1845), was an American pioneer nurseryman who introduced apples to large parts of
Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, mainly Ohio. He became an American legend while still alive, largely because of his kind and generous ways, his great leadership in conservation, and the symbolic importance of apples.
He was also a
missionaryfor the Church of the New Jerusalem, or Swedenborgian Church, so named because it teaches the theological doctrines contained in the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg."Swedenborgian history." Retrieved September 9, 2006 from [http://swedenborg.org/jappleseed/history.html http://swedenborg.org/jappleseed/history.html] ]
John Chapman was the second child of Nathaniel Chapman and Elizabeth (née Simonds) (who married February 8, 1770) of
Leominster, Massachusetts. Tradition holds that Nathaniel lost two good farms during the American Revolution, but in fact Johnny's father was a farmer of little means, and there is no deed record of either property. [The New England Roots of "Johnny Appleseed", The New England Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3. (Sep., 1939), pp. 454-469] Nathaniel started John Chapman on a career as an orchardist by apprenticing him to a Mr. Crawford, who had apple orchards."Johnny Appleseed, Orchardist", prepared by the staff of the Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County, November, 1952, page 4]
A third child, Nathaniel Jr., was born on June 26, 1776, while Nathaniel was an officer leading a company of carpenters attached to General
George Washingtonin New York City. [A Boyhood for "Johnny Appleseed", The New England Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 3. (Sep., 1944), pp. 381-393] Elizabeth, however, was ill (probably with tuberculosis) and both mother and child died in July, leaving John and his older sister, also named Elizabeth, to be raised by relatives. After being honorably discharged in 1780, Nathaniel married Lucy Cooley, with whom he had 10 more children. Around 1803 John's sister Elizabeth married Nathaniel Rudd.
Heading to the frontier
In 1792, 18-year-old Chapman went west, taking 11-year-old half-brother Nathaniel with him. Their destination was the headwaters of the Susquehanna. There are stories of him practicing his nurseryman craft in the Wilkes-Barre area and of picking seeds from the
pomaceat Potomac cider mills in the late 1790s. Another story has Chapman living in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniaon Grant's Hill in 1794 at the time of the Whiskey Rebellion. [ "A People's History of Pittsburgh" "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" retrieved 1-10-08 [http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07329/836343-109.stm] ]
Land records show that John Chapman was in today's
Licking County, Ohio, in 1800. Congress had passed resolutions in 1798 to give land there, ranging from 160 to 2,240 acres (65-900 hectares), to Revolutionary War veterans, but soldiers did not actually receive letters of patent to their grants until 1802. By the time the veterans arrived, Johnny's nurseries, located on the Isaac Stadden farm, had trees big enough to transplant.
Nathaniel Chapman arrived with his second family in 1805, although John's sister Elizabeth remained in the east with her husband. At that point, the younger Nathaniel Chapman rejoined the elder, and Johnny Appleseed spent the rest of his life as an itinerant planter and sometime-preacher.
By 1806, when he arrived in
Jefferson County, Ohio, canoeing down the Ohio Riverwith a load of seeds, he was known as Johnny Appleseed. He had used a pack horse to bring seeds to Licking Creekin 1800, so it seems likely that the nickname appeared at the same time as his religious conversion.
The popular image of Johnny Appleseed had him spreading apple seeds randomly, everywhere he went. In fact, he planted nurseries rather than orchards, built fences around them to protect them from livestock, left the nurseries in the care of a neighbor who sold trees on shares, and returned every year or two to tend the nursery. Many of these nurseries were located in the Mohican area of North-Central Ohio. This area included the towns of Mansfield, Lucas, Perrysville, and Loudonville.(1871) Johnny Appleseed: A Pioneer Hero, "
Harper's New Monthly Magazine", LXIV, 830-831]
Appleseed's managers were asked to sell trees on credit, if at all possible, but he would accept corn meal, cash or used clothing in barter. The notes did not specify an exact maturity date—that date might not be convenient—and if it did not get paid on time, or even get paid at all, Johnny Appleseed did not press for payment. Appleseed was hardly alone in this pattern of doing business, but he was unusual in remaining a wanderer his entire life.He obtained the apple seed for free; cider mills wanted more apple trees planted since it would eventually bring them more business. Johnny Appleseed dressed in the worst of the used clothing he received, giving away the better clothing he received in barter. He wore no shoes, even in the snowy winter. There was always someone in need he could help out, for he did not have a house to maintain. When he heard a horse was to be put down, he had to buy the horse, buy a few grassy acres nearby, and turn the horse out to recover. If it did, he would give the horse to someone needy, exacting a promise to treat the horse humanely."Johnny Appleseed, Orchardist", prepared by the staff of the Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen Couth, November, 1952, page 26]
Chapman often eschewed normal clothing, even in the cold of winter, and generally led a harsh, subsistent lifestyle. According to Harper's, towards the end of his career, he was present when an itinerant missionary was exhorting an open-air congregation in
Mansfield, Ohio. The sermon was long and quite severe on the topic of extravagance, because the pioneers were starting to buy such indulgences as calico and store-bought tea. “Where now is there a man who, like the primitive Christians, is traveling to heaven bare-footed and clad in coarse raiment?” the preacher repeatedly asked, until Johnny Appleseed, his endurance worn out, walked up to the preacher, put his bare foot on the stump which had served as a podium, and said, “Here's your primitive Christian!” The flummoxed sermonizer dismissed the congregation.(1871) “Johnny Appleseed: A Pioneer Hero”, " Harper's New Monthly Magazine", LXIV, 836]
Life as a missionary
He spent most of his time traveling from home to home on the frontier. He would tell stories to children, spread the
Swedenborgiangospel ("news right fresh from heaven") to the adults, receiving a floor to sleep on for the night, sometimes supper in return. "We can hear him read now, just as he did that summer day, when we were busy quilting up stairs, and he lay near the door, his voice rising denunciatory and thrilling—strong and loud as the roar of wind and waves, then soft and soothing as the balmy airs that quivered the morning-glory leaves about his gray beard. His was a strange eloquence at times, and he was undoubtedly a man of genius", reported a lady who knew him in his later years."Johnny Appleseed: A Pioneer Hero", Harper's New Monthly MagazineNovember 1871, page 834] He would often tear a few pages from one of Swedenborg's books and leave them with his hosts.
He made several trips back east, both to visit his sister and to replenish his supply of Swedenborgian literature. He typically would visit his orchards every year or two and collect his earnings.
Attitudes towards animals
Johnny Appleseed's beliefs made him care deeply about animals. His concern extended even to insects. Henry Howe, who visited all 88 counties in Ohio in the early 1800s, collected these stories in the 1830s, when Johnny Appleseed was still alive: [Howe, Henry (1903). Richland County. Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio (485), New York:Dover.] blockquote|One cool autumnal night, while lying by his camp-fire in the woods, he observed that the mosquitoes flew in the blaze and were burnt. Johnny, who wore on his head a tin utensil which answered both as a cap and a mush pot, filled it with water and quenched the fire, and afterwards remarked, “God forbid that I should build a fire for my comfort, that should be the means of destroying any of His creatures.”
Another time he made a camp-fire at the end of a hollow log in which he intended to pass the night, but finding it occupied by a bear and cubs, he removed his fire to the other end, and slept on the snow in the open air, rather than disturb the bear.
Attitude towards marriage
When Johnny Appleseed was asked why he did not marry, his answer was always that two female spirits would be his wives in the
after-lifeif he stayed single on earth.cite journal|year=1871|title=Johnny Appleseed: A Pioneer Hero|journal= Harper's New Monthly Magazine|issue=LXIV|pages=833] However, Henry Howe reported that Appleseed had been a frequent visitor to Perrysville, Ohio, where Appleseed is remembered as being a constant snuff customer, with beautiful teeth. He was to propose to Miss Nancy Tannehill there—only to find that he was a day late; she had accepted a prior proposal: [cite book|last=Howe|first=Henry|year=1903|title=Richland County. Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio|pages=260|location=New York|publisher=Dover] blockquote|On one occasion Miss PRICE’s mother asked Johnny if he would not be a happier man, if he were settled in a home of his own, and had a family to love him. He opened his eyes very wide–they were remarkably keen, penetrating grey eyes, almost black–and replied that all women were not what they professed to be; that some of them were deceivers; and a man might not marry the amiable woman that he thought he was getting, after all.
Now we had always heard that Johnny had loved once upon a time, and that his lady love had proven false to him. Then he said one time he saw a poor, friendless little girl, who had no one to care for her, and sent her to school, and meant to bring her up to suit himself, and when she was old enough he intended to marry her. He clothed her and watched over her; but when she was fifteen years old, he called to see her once unexpectedly, and found her sitting beside a young man, with her hand in his, listening to his silly twaddle.
I peeped over at Johnny while he was telling this, and, young as I was, I saw his eyes grow dark as violets, and the pupils enlarge, and his voice rise up in denunciation, while his nostrils dilated and his thin lips worked with emotion. How angry he grew! He thought the girl was basely ungrateful. After that time she was no protegé of his.
It has been suggested that Johnny may have had
Marfan syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. [cite web|title=Marfan Syndrome Resource Page|accessdate=2006-09-05|url=http://www.dataformato.com/Mag-to-Mar/marfan_syndrome.php] One of the primary characteristics of Marfan Syndrome is extra-long and slim limbs. All sources seem to agree that Johnny Appleseed was slim, but while other accounts suggest that he was tall, Harper's describes him as "small and wiry."
Those who propose the Marfan theory suggest that his compromised health may have made him feel the cold less intensely. His long life, however, suggests he did not have Marfan's, and while Marfan's is closely associated with death from cardiovascular complications, Johnny Appleseed died in his sleep, from "winter plague" (presumably
There is some controversy and vagueness concerning the date of his death and his burial. "
Harper's New Monthly Magazine" of November, 1871 (which is taken by many as the primary source of information about John Chapman) says he died in the summer of 1847. The "Fort Wayne Sentinel", however, printed his obituary on March 22, 1845, saying that he died on March 18: [cite journal|title=Obituaries|journal=The Fort Wayne Sentinel|volume=67|issue=81|date=March 22, 1845] blockquote|On the same day in this neighborhood, at an advanced age, Mr. John Chapman (better known as Johnny Appleseed).
The deceased was well known through this region by his eccentricity,and the strange garb he usually wore. He followed the occupation of a nurseryman, and has been a regular visitor here upwards of 10 years. He was a native of Pennsylvania we understand but his home—if home he had—for some years past was in the neighborhood of
Cleveland, Ohio, where he has relatives living. He is supposed to have considerable property, yet denied himself almost the common necessities of life—not so much perhaps for avarice as from his peculiar notions on religious subjects. He was a follower of Swedenborg and devoutly believed that the more he endured in this world the less he would have to suffer and the greater would be his happiness hereafter—he submitted to every privation with cheerfulness and content, believing that in so doing he was securing snug quarters hereafter.
In the most inclement weather he might be seen barefooted and almost naked except when he chanced to pick up articles of old clothing. Notwithstanding the privations and exposure he endured, he lived to an extreme old age, not less than 80 years at the time of his death — though no person would have judged from his appearance that he was 60. "He always carried with him some work on the doctrines of Swedenborg with which he was perfectly familiar, and would readily converse and argue on his tenets, using much shrewdness and penetration.
His death was quite sudden. He was seen on our streets a day or two previous.”
The actual site of his grave is disputed as well. Developers of
Fort Wayne, Indiana's Canterbury Green apartment complex and golf courseclaim his grave is there, marked by a rock. That is where the Worth cabin in which he died sat.cite web|title=Researcher finds slice of Johnny Appleseed's life that may prove his burial spot|first=Kevin|last=Kilbane|publisher= The News-Sentinel|date=September 18, 2003|accessdate=2006-09-08|url=http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/newssentinel/6803587.htm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20050214084049/http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/newssentinel/6803587.htm|archivedate=2005-02-14]
However, Steven Fortriede, director of the
Allen County Public Library(ACPL) and author of the 1978 "Johnny Appleseed", believes another putative [http://contentdm.acpl.lib.in.us/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/coll10&CISOPTR=376&REC=1 gravesite] , one designated as a National Historic Landmarkand located in Johnny Appleseed Parkin Fort Wayne, ["Man and Myth" Retrieved September 5, 2006 from [http://www.in.gov/ism/Education/Johnny_Appleseed.pdf#search=%22Johnny%20Appleseed%3A%20Man%20and%20Myth%22 http://www.in.gov/ism/Education/Johnny_Appleseed.pdf#search=%22Johnny%20Appleseed%3A%20Man%20and%20Myth%22] ] is the correct site. Johnny Appleseed Park was known until recently as Archer Park and was the former Archer farm.
The Worth family attended First Baptist Church in Fort Wayne, according to records at ACPL, which has one of the nation's top genealogy collections. [ [http://www.acpl.lib.in.us/genealogy/ http://www.acpl.lib.in.us/genealogy/] ] According to an 1858 interview with Richard Worth Jr., Chapman was buried "respectably" in the Archer cemetery, and Fortriede believes use of the term "respectably" indicates Chapman was buried in the hallowed ground of Archer cemetery instead of near the cabin where he died.
John H. Archer, grandson of David Archer, wrote in a letter [John H. Archer letter, dated October 4, 1900, in Johnny Appleseed collection of Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne IN] datedOctober 4, 1900: blockquote|The historical account of his death and burial by the Worths and their neighbors, the Pettits, Goinges, Porters, Notestems, Parkers, Beckets, Whitesides, Pechons, Hatfields, Parrants, Ballards, Randsells, and the Archers in David Archer's private burial grounds is substantially correct. The grave, more especially the common head-boards used in those days, have long since decayed and become entirely obliterated, and at this time I do not think that any person could with any degree of certainty come within fifty feet of pointing out the location of his grave. Suffice it to say that he has been gathered in with his neighbors and friends, as I have enumerated, for the majority of them lie in David Archer's graveyard with him
The Johnny Appleseed Commission to the Common Council of the City of FortWayne reported, "as a part of the celebration of Indiana's 100th birthday in 1916 an iron fencewas placed in the Archer graveyard by the Horticulture Society of Indianasetting off the grave of Johnny Appleseed. At that time, there were menliving who had attended the funeral of Johnny Appleseed. Direct and accurateevidence was available then. There was little or no reason for themto make a mistake about the location of this grave. They located the gravein the Archer burying ground." [Report of a Special Committee of theJohnny Appleseed Commission to the Common Council of the City of FortWayne, December 27, 1934]
Despite his altruism and charity, Johnny Appleseed left an estate of over 1,200 acres (500 ha) of valuable nurseries to his sister, worth millions even then, and far more now.cite web|title=The Straight Dope on Johnny Appleseed|accessdate=2006-09-05|url=http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mjappleseed.html|publisher=Straight Dope] He could have left more if he had been diligent in his bookkeeping. He bought the southwest quarter (160 acres) of section 26, Mohican Township,
Ashland County, Ohio, but he did not record the deed and lost the property.cite journal|year=1871|title=Johnny Appleseed: A Pioneer Hero|journal= Harper's New Monthly Magazine|issue=LXIV|pages=835]
panic of 1837took a toll on his estate."Johnny Appleseed, Orchardist", prepared by the staff of the Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen Couth, November, 1952, page 26] Trees only brought two or three cents each, as opposed to the "fip-penny bit" (about six and a quarter cents) that he usually got."Johnny Appleseed, Orchardist", prepared by the staff of the Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen Couth, November, 1952, page 17] Some of his land was sold for taxes following his death, and litigation used up much of the rest.
A memorial, in Fort Wayne's [http://contentdm.acpl.lib.in.us/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/coll6&CISOPTR=2179&REC=1 Swinney Park] , purports to honor him but not to mark his grave. At the time of his death, he owned four plots in
Allen County, Indiana, including a nursery in Milan Township, Allen County, Indiana, with 15,000 trees.
Since 1975, a Johnny Appleseed Festival has been held in mid-September in Johnny Appleseed Park. Musicians, demonstrators, and vendors dress in early 19th century dress, and offer food and beverages which would have been available then. [cite web|title=Johnny Appleseed Festival|accessdate=2006-09-05|url=http://www.johnnyappleseedfest.com/] An outdoor drama is also an annual event in Mansfield, Ohio. [cite web|title=The Johnny Appleseed Outdoor Drama|accessdate=2006-09-05|url=http://www.jahci.org/]
March 11 or September 26 are sometimes celebrated as Johnny Appleseed Day. The September date is Appleseed's acknowledged birthdate, but the March date is sometimes preferred because it is during planting season, even though it is disputed as the day of his death. Other sources report that he died on February 18.
Johnny Appleseed Elementary School is a public school located in Leominster, MA, his birthplace.
A large terra cotta sculpture of Johnny Appleseed, created by
Viktor Schreckengost, decorates the front of the Lakewood High School Civic Auditorium in Lakewood, Ohio. Although the local Board of Education deemed Appleseed too "eccentric" a figure to grace the front of the building, renaming the sculpture simply "Early Settler," students, teachers, and parents alike still call the sculpture by its intended name: "Johnny Appleseed." [cite web|title="Johnny Appleseed."|accessdate=2008-01-02|url=http://www.lkwdpl.org/history/schools/t.htm]
In modern culture
books and films have been based on the life of Johnny Appleseed. [A search on "Subject: "Johnny Appleseed" in category "books" at Amazon.com, September 5, 2007 shows 116 items.] One notable account is from the first chapter of "" by Michael Pollan. [cite book |title= The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-Eye View of the World |"last=Pollan |first= Michael|authorlink= Michael Pollan |year= 2001|publisher= Random House|location= New York |isbn= 0-375-50129-0 |format=hardcover 2002 paperback: ISBN 0-375-76039-3]
One of the more successful films was "
Melody Time", the animated 1948 film from Walt DisneyStudios featuring Dennis Day. "The Legend of Johnny Appleseed", a 19-minute segment, tells the story of an apple farmer who sees others going west, wistfully wishing he was not tied down by his orchard, until an angelappears, singing an apple song, setting Johnny on a mission. When he treats a skunkkindly, all animals everywhere thereafter trust him. The cartoonfeatures lively tunes, and a childlike simplicity of message, offering a bright, well-groomed park environment instead of a dark and rugged malarial swamp, friendly, pet-like creatures instead of dangerous animals, and a lack of hunger, loneliness, disease, and extremes of temperature. Uniquely for a cartoon of its period, it shows Johnny at the moment of his death, followed by his resurrection in heaven and the commitment to "sow the clouds" with apple trees. ["Johnny Appleseed (1948)" Retrieved September 12, 2006 from [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0040494/ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0040494/] ] (Note: Showing a character in Heaven is not unique to this cartoon. In " Make Mine Music" (1946), the segment entitled "The Whale Who Wanted to Sing at the Met" ends with the whale being killed and then singing in Heaven.)
Supposedly, the only surviving tree planted by Johnny Appleseed is on the farm of Richard and Phyllis Algeo of
Nova, Ohio["Virginia Berry Farm" Retrieved September 12, 2006 from [http://virginiaberryfarm.com/Fruit_berry_plants/fruit_trees.htm http://virginiaberryfarm.com/Fruit_berry_plants/fruit_trees.htm] ] Some marketers claim it is a Rambo, ["Koontenai" Retrieved September 12, 2006 from [http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/kootenai/projects/environmental/nepa/qrtly_files/qrtly699.pdf http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/kootenai/projects/environmental/nepa/qrtly_files/qrtly699.pdf] ] although the Rambo was introduced to America in the 1640s by Peter Gunnarsson Rambo, ["Peter Gunnarsson Rambo" Retrieved September 12, 2006 from [http://www.colonialswedes.org/forefathers/rambo.html http://www.colonialswedes.org/forefathers/rambo.html] ] more than a century before John Chapman was born. Some even make the claim that the Rambo was "Johnny Appleseed's favorite variety", ["Virginia Apples" Retrieved September 12, 2006 from [http://www.virginiaapples.org/kids/appleseed.html http://www.virginiaapples.org/kids/appleseed.html] ] ignoring that he had religious objections to grafting and preferred wild apples to all named varieties. It appears most nurseries are calling the tree the "Johnny Appleseed" variety, rather than a Rambo. Unlike the mid-summer Rambo, the Johnny Appleseed variety ripens in September and is a baking/applesauce variety similar to an Albemarle Pippen. Nurseries offer the Johnny Appleseed tree as an immature apple tree for planting, with scions from the Algeo stock grafted on them. ["The Johnny Appleseed Tree" Retrieved September 12, 2006 from [http://www.historictrees.org/produ_ht/johnappl.htm http://www.historictrees.org/produ_ht/johnappl.htm] ] Orchardists do not appear to be marketing the fruit of this tree.
Grimes Goldenapple is believedWho|date=June 2008 to directly descend from a tree originally started by Johnny Appleseed.Fact|date=June 2008
Johnny Appleseed shows up in a variety of modern cultural areas. Johnny Appleseed is a character in
Neil Gaiman's " American Gods". [cite book |title= American Gods |last=Gaiman |first= Neil|authorlink= Neil Gaiman |year= 2001 |publisher= William Morrow |location= New York |isbn = 0-380-97365-0 ] The fantasy video game " Wild Arms 5" uses elements of the Johnny Appleseed legend, including his name, as part of its story.Fact|date=October 2007 Apple Inc.uses a "John Appleseed" character in many of its recent adverts, video tutorials, and keynote presentation examples., [cite web| url=http://www.macformat.co.uk/page/macformat/20071030 |title=Exactly what it says on the Text Edit icon... |date= October 30, 2007 |publisher = www.macformat.co.uk |accessdate=2007-12-10] this was also the alias of Mike Markkulaunder which he published several programs for the Apple II. [Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World's Most Colorful Company, Page 4, ISBN 1593270100 ] The theme song for the HBOseries " John from Cincinnati" is "Johnny Appleseed" by Joe Strummerand The Mescaleros.Fact|date=October 2007 Punk band NOFXhave a song called "Johnny Appleseed". There is also a song by Guided by Voicesentitled "Johnny Appleseed", appearing on the EP Clown Prince of the Menthol Trailer. "Johnny Appleseed" featured in a comic series in "The Victor" in UK, early Sixties.
The Man Who Planted Trees
Johnny Appleseed Festival
Fort Wayne TinCaps(Class A Midwest League)
* " [http://www.theamericanstoryteller.com/story-details.cfm?story=190 Listen online – The Story of John “Johnny Appleseed” Chapman - The American Storyteller Radio Journal] "
* " [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?coll=moa&root=/moa/harp/harp0043/&tif=00840.TIF&view=50&frames=1 "Johnny Appleseed: A Pioneer Hero"] " from "
Harper's Magazine", November 1871.
* " [http://contentdm.acpl.lib.in.us/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/coll9&CISOPTR=27&CISOSHOW=0 Johnny Appleseed, Orchardist] " from the online "Community Album Collection" of the
Allen County Public Library, November 1952.
* " [http://www.audienceoftwo.com/mag.php?art_id=1 "The Continuing Adventures of Johnny Appleseed"] " fictional account of Johnny Appleseed in the twenty-first century
* " [http://www.johnnyappleseedfest.net/ " Johnny Appleseed Festival in Sheffield, PA"] "
* " [http://www.getoutzine.com/node/258 "In the Wake of Johnny Appleseed"] " Article about a canoe trip on the Mohican River (Appleseed country) with the founder of the Johnny Appleseed Heritage Center.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=John Chapman
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Legendary nurseryman and missionary
DATE OF BIRTH=February 8, 1770
PLACE OF BIRTH=Leominster, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH=March 18, 1845
PLACE OF DEATH=Fort Wayne, Indiana
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