Karia HM V

Karia HM V

Infobox Train
background = tram
name = HM V

imagesize = 300px
caption = An HM V class tram on the now-defunct line 2 in Helsinki

interiorcaption =
InService = Yes
Manufacturer = Karia
Factory = Karjaa
Family =
Refurbishment = 2004–2007 (only two cars refurbished as of August 2008)
Replaced =
Formation =
Designation = 1-15, 175
Operator = Helsinki City Transport (HKL)
Depots =
LinesServed = All Helsinki tram lines
yearconstruction = 1959
yearservice = 1959
yearscrapped = 1993 onwards
numberconstruction =
numberbuilt = 15
numberservice = 6 (mostly in reserve)
numberscrapped = 9
CarBody =
CarLength = convert|13.50|m|ft|abbr=on
CarWidth = convert|2.3|m|ft|abbr=on
CarHeight = convert|3.6|m|ft|abbr=on with pantograph
floorheight =
platformheight =
entrylevelorstep =
art-sections =
doors =
MaxSpeed =
Weight = 20 metric tons
Capacity = 29 seated, 69 standing (as built)
31 seated, 57 standing (one-person operation)
Acceleration =
Deceleration =
Traction = 4×Strömberg GHAU-672
ABB M2CF 250S 4B30E (number 11 from 1995 onwards)
Engine =
Power = 50 kW
55 kW (number 11 from 1995 onwards)
Transmission =
Auxiliaries =
Power-supply =
Gauge = convert|1|m|ft|abbr=on
Voltage =
Brakes = hand/air/electric/track
SafetySystem =

HM V is a class of two-bogie four-axle (Bo'Bo' wheel arrangement) tram operated by Helsinki City Transport ( _fi. Helsingin kaupungin liikennelaitos, abbreviated HKL; _sv. Helsingfors stads trafikverk, abbreviated HST) on the Helsinki tram network. All trams of this type were built by the Finnish tram manufacturer Karia in 1959.cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/ratikat/helsinki/hkl/hkl1-_4/hkl1-_4.htm |title=HKL: Motor trams 1 – 15 (1959) |accessdate=2008-08-13 |last= |first= |date= |format= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish and English ] [cite book |last=Pölhö |first=Eljas |coauthors=Pykälä-aho, Mia |title=Suomen juna- ja raitiovaunukuvasto / Finnish Motive Power 1. 1. 1996 |year=1996 |publisher=Frank Stenvalls Förlag |location=Malmö |language=Finnish and English |isbn=91-7266-133-X |pages=p. 186 ]

The first trams of this type were withdrawn from service in 1993. As of 2008 six trams (numbers 9, 11–14 and 175) remain in operational condition. Of these two have been extensively repaired and are occasionally used in normal service (numbers 9 and 12), one has been converted into a restaurant tram (former no. 15, now no. 175 "Spårakoff") and one is used as a non-passenger carrying advertisement tram (no. 14).cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/ratikat/helsinki/hkl/luettelo/kalusto.htm |title=Trams in Helsinki (HKL) 05.2008 |accessdate=2008-08-13 |last= |first= |date= |format= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish and English ]

Concept and construction

The HM V type trams, alongside the near-identical RM 3 type produced at the same time by Valmet, were the last development in a series of five near-identical tram types produced by Karia and Valmet for operations on the Helsinki and Turku tram network during the 1950s (the previous types being HM IV and RM 1 for Helsinki and RM 2 for Turku).

HKL ordered the HM V type trams from Karia, a daughter company of Suomen autoteollisuus, in 1957. The series designation stands for "Helsingin moottorivaunu, viides sarja" ( _en. Helsinki motor tram, series five). Karia built the bodies and assembled the trams, while Sisu (another daughter company of Suomen autoteollisuus) supplied the bogies and Strömberg the electronics.cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/historia/koff/koff.htm |title=Ravintolaraitiovaunu Spårakoff - HKL 175 |accessdate=2008-08-13 |last=Heino |first=Tom |date= |format= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish ]

ervice history

The first HM V tram, number 1, was delivered to the HKL on 1959-04-27, with number 15 delivered last in the series on 1959-10-23. Coinciding with the delivery of these new trams the HKL had decided to reset their numbering scheme. Therefore the HM V trams were numbered starting from one and not from 376, as they would have been had the old numbering been continued. The HM V trams were built to be compatible with the HP II type trailers that had been constructed in 1958–1959, also by Karia. The usage of trailers in Helsinki ended in 1983, although the couplers needed for hauling trailers were retained in the HM V type trams for many years afterwards, number 14 being the last tram to have one, with the coupler removed only in 2006. [Pölhö, Pykälä-Aho (1996). p. 194.] cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/ratikat/helsinki/hkl/hkl501/hkl501.htm |title=HKL Closed trailers 501–530 |accessdate=2008-08-13 |last= |first= |date= |format= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish and English ]

Originally the HM V trams were built for two-person operations, with a separate driver and conductor. Between 1978 and 1982 they were converted to one-person operations, with the driver also acting as the ticket seller.The first HM V units to be withdrawn from service were numbers 5 and 6, withdrawn in 1993, with number 7 following in 1994. In 1994 work also begun on converting number 15 into a pub tram. These works were completed in 1995, when number 15 was renumbered into number 175 in honour of the 175th anniversary of the Sinebrychoff brewery, who also paid the conversion work of the tram. In addition to be being renumbered, the tram was named Spårakoff (from Helsinki slang "Spåra", tram, and "Koff", a beer brand brewed by Sinebrychoff). Also during 1995 number 11 was rebuilt as a "NAC protype" by ABB, with new traction motors and control devices.

During the latter half of the 1990s HKL ordered 40 low-floor Variotrams, which were projected to replace the HM V and RM 3 types in their entirety. [cite web |url=http://www.kaupunkiliikenne.net/Helsinki/hehistoria.html#_1990r |title=Helsingin raideliikenteen historiaa > Raitiotiet > 1990-luku |accessdate=2008-08-14 |last=Alku |first=Antero |date=2008-07-31 |format= |publisher=Kaupunkiliikenne.net |language=Finnish ] During the early 2000s three HM V trams were withdrawn from service, with number 4 withdrawn in 2000, and numbers 1 and 2 during the following year. However, due to persistant technical problems of the Variotrams, [cite web |url=http://www.kaupunkiliikenne.net/Helsinki/hehistoria.html#_2000r |title=Helsingin raideliikenteen historiaa > Raitiotiet > 2000-luku |accessdate=2008-08-14 |last=Alku |first=Antero |date=2008-07-31 |format= |publisher=Kaupunkiliikenne.net |language=Finnish ] some other units in the class remained in service. In 2004–2005 number 12 was in Tallinna Trammi- ja Trollibussikoondis (TTTK) depot in Tallinn for large-scale repair/renovation process. Similar renovation were carried out at TTTK on number 9 in 2005–2007. Number 11 received smaller-scale renovation in 2007. While these three trams were restored, numbers 3, 8 and 10 were withdrawn from service in 2006–2007, leaving six HM V trams in existence.


Originally all HM V trams were painted in the traditional yellow/green livery used in HKL trams, with the top half of the carriage painted yellow and the bottom half green. In 1995 on conversion into the Spårakoff pub tram, number 175, ex-15, recivered a new all-red livery advertiting Koff beer. Numbers 8, 9 and 15 had occasionally been used as advertisement trams during the 90s, and from 2005 onwards number 14 has been used as an advertisement tram, covered entirely in adverts of various companies. [cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/ratikat/hkimain/mainos.htm|title=Mainosvaunut |accessdate=2008-08-14 |last=Rauhala |first=Jorma |date= |format= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish ]

During the extensive repairs at TTTK in Tallinn, number 9 and 12 have been painted with a modified version of the original livery, with added silver decorative stripes; one running between the yellow and green fields, and another near the bottom of the carriage.

Interior layout and design

In the original interior layout with a separate conductor and driver the HM V trams had capacity of 29 seated passengers and 69 standing passengers. During the rush hour this could be exceeded by an additional 50 standing passengers. On conversion to one-person operation during the late 70s and early 80s, the conductor's seat was replaced with two additional seats, bringing the seating capacity up to 31, while the standing capacity was downsized to 57 plus an additional 44 during the rush hour. Following conversion into the Spårakoff, tram number 175 (ex-15) has a capacity of 24 all-seated passengers.


"Keppi-Karia", "keppi-Karjaa", "laihialainen" and "laihian nivel" have been used as nicknames for the HM V trams. [cite web |url=http://www.hel.fi/wps/portal/HKL_en/HKL-Tram_Transport?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/HKL/en/HKL+Info/Organization/HKL+Tram/Fleet/HKL+1_15 |title=HKL 1-15 |accessdate=2008-08-14 |last= |first= |date=2008-08-05 |format= |publisher=Helsinki City Transport |language= ] Below are some of the explanations that have been offered for these nicknames.

* "Keppi-Karia" ( _en. stick-Karia) and "keppi-Karjaa" ( _en. stick-Karjaa) — reportedly after the stick-like controlling device in the trams combined with the name/location of the manufacturer. [cite web |url=http://jlf.fi/f17/75-sparien-lempinimet/#post388 |title=Kepit ja ratit |accessdate=2008-08-14 |last=Sillanpää |first=Kai |date=2005-07-05 |format= |publisher=Joukkoliikennefoorumi |language=Finnish ]
* "Laihialainen" (roughtly "person/thing from Laihia"), "Laihian nivel" ( _en. joint of Laihia) — In Finnish folklore the inhabitants of the municipality of Laihia are believed to be extreme misers, while an articulated tram is in Finnish referred to as "nivelvaunu", literally "jointed tram". These nicknames are said to refer to the changes made to the trams when they were converted to one-person operations. At the same time they were also refitted with door controllers similar to the newer Nr I type articulated trams, making the HM V units into "a miser's articulated tram". [cite web |url=http://jlf.fi/f17/75-sparien-lempinimet/#post385 |title=Re: Spårien lempinimistä |accessdate=2008-08-14 |last=Gustafsson |first=Jussi |date=2005-07-05 |format= |publisher=Joukkoliikennefoorumi |language=Finnish ] An alternative explanation for the name "laihialainen" is that the removal of the conductors made them "stripped models" and the nickname was used to describe the lack of conductors. [cite book |title=Sata vuotta sähköllä |last=Tolmunen |first=Tapio |year=2000 |publisher=HKL-Raitioliikenne |location= |isbn=952-91-2495-3 |pages=p. 52 |url= |language=Finnish ]


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