Special-purpose district

Special-purpose district

There are two types of special-purpose districts in the United States: school districts and special districts. This is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc., in that they only serve one or a few special purposes and do not provide a broad array of services. They are common in the United States of America, where more than 35,000 districts play an important role in providing government services in every U.S. state. The U.S. Census Bureau keeps counts and data on these districts.

Special-purpose districts provide specialized services only to those persons who live within them. Special districts possess fiscal and administrative autonomy. They often are empowered to tax residents of the district, usually by a property tax but sometimes an excise or sales tax, for the services that they provide. They often cross the lines of towns, villages, and hamlets but less frequently cross city or county lines. Increasingly, however, regional special districts are being created that may serve a large portion of a state or portions of more than one state.

Districts are created by legislative action, court action, or public referendum and are governed by a board of directors, commissioners, supervisors, or the like. The board serves as a district board of directors and may be appointed by public officials, appointed by private entities, popularly elected, or elected by benefited citizens (typically property owners). Sometimes, one or more public officials will serve ex officio on the board. Also, the board of a private entity may serve as the board of a special district (however, such a board could not be given the power to set a tax). The board serves primarily as a legislative board and appoints a chief executive for day to day operations and decision making and policy implementation. Most districts have employees, but some districts exist solely to raise funds by issuing bonds and/or by providing tax increment financing.

Districts typically have some corporate powers. They must be able to set their own budget without line item modification by another government. The authorizing legislation may give them the power to tax, issue bonds, or set fees; and/or the authorizing legislation may establish revenues via taxes or fees on behalf of the district; and/or the authorizing legislation may require contributions by participating local governments.

Special districts are sometimes created to provide fire protection, sewer service, transit service or to manage water resources, among many other possible functions. In many states in the USA, school districts operate the public schools (as opposed to dependent school systems, which are dependent on the state or a local government for administrative and/or fiscal direction). All special-purpose districts are founded by some level of government in accordance with state law and exist in all states.


*Beach district
*Community college district
*Community service district
*Conservation district
*Electricity district
*Emergency services district (emergency medical, firefighting)
*Fire protection district
*Highway district (historic UK) or Road commission (Michigan)
*Hospital district
*Mosquito abatement district
*Library district
*Open space district
*Parks and recreation district
*Poor law union
*Port authority
*Public utility district
*Reclamation district
*Sanitary district (historic UK)
*School district
*Transit district
*Vector control district
*Water district


*Fayette County Conservation District, Lexington, Kentucky
*Los Angeles Community College District, California
*Metro, Portland metropolitan area, Oregon
*Metropolitan School District of Perry Township, Indianapolis, Indiana
*Metropolitan Board of Works, London, England
*Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago
*Miami Valley Regional Transit Authority, Dayton, Ohio
*Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District, California
*Nebraska Public Power District
*Orange County Water District, California
*Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York City
*Reedy Creek Improvement District, which includes the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida
*York Rural Sanitary District, Yorkshire, England
*Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, D.C.

ee also

*business improvement district
*interstate compact
*Municipal Authority (Pennsylvania)
*off-budget enterprise
*political science
*quasi-autonomous non-government organisation
*residential community association


* [http://www.csda.net/ California Special Districts Association]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Special-purpose district — Der dem Zweckverband in Deutschland entsprechende Begriff in den USA ist der special purpose district. In den USA werden Zweckverbände zu den gleichen Zwecken gebildet wie in Deutschland, etwa auch zu Zwecken wie beispielsweise der Schulbildung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Special Purpose Command — Infobox Military Unit unit name=Moscow District of the Air Force and Air Defence Force Special Purpose Command caption= country=Soviet Union, Russia type= branch=Soviet Air Force, Russian Air Force dates=c.1945 present command structure= size=… …   Wikipedia

  • District — For other uses, see District (disambiguation). Districts are a type of administrative division, in some countries managed by a local government. They vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, or… …   Wikipedia

  • Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago — District Seal The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC), originally known as the Sanitary District of Chicago is a special purpose district, chartered to operate in northern Illinois since 1889. Although its name may …   Wikipedia

  • Special education in the United States — Special education programs in the United States were made mandatory in 1975 when the United States Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) in response to discriminatory treatment by public educational agencies against …   Wikipedia

  • District of Columbia v. Heller — Supreme Court of the United States Argued March 18, 2008 Decided June …   Wikipedia

  • Transit district — A transit district or transit authority is a special purpose district organized as either a corporation chartered by statute, or a government agency, created for the purpose of providing public transportation within a specific region. In the… …   Wikipedia

  • School district — School districts are a form of special purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools. They exist mostly in the United States, where they operate nearly all government funded schools.United StatesPublic… …   Wikipedia

  • Business improvement district — A business improvement district (BID) is a defined area within which businesses pay an additional tax or fee in order to fund improvements within the district s boundaries. Grant funds acquired by the city for special programs and/or incentives… …   Wikipedia

  • District Planning in Kerala — District Planning is the process of planning covering all local governments in a district based on a district level development policy and integrating the district and sub district plans of all the local governments into a consolidated district… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”