- Steel frame
Steel frame usually refers to a building technique with a "
skeletonframe" of vertical steel columnsand horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraperpossible.
The rolled steel "profile" or cross section of steel columns takes the shape of the letter "H". The two wide
flanges of a column are thicker and wider than a the flanges on a beam, to better withstand compressive stressin the structure. Square and round tubular sections of steel can also be used, often filled with concrete. Steel beams are connected to the columns with bolts and threaded fasteners, and historically connected by rivets. The central "web" of the steel "I "-beam is often wider than a column web to resist the higher bending moments that occur in beams.
Wide sheets of steel deck can be used to cover the top of the steel frame as a "form" or corrugated mold, below a thick layer of concrete and steel reinforcing bars. Another popular alternative is a floor of precast concrete flooring units with some form of concrete topping. Often in office buildings the final floor surface is provided by some form of raised flooring system with the void between the walking surface and the structural floor being used for cables and air handling ducts.
The frame needs to be protected from fire because steel softens at high temperature and this can cause the building to partially collapse. In the case of the columns this is usually done by encasing it in some form of fire resistant structure such as masonry, concrete or plasterboard. The beams may be cased in concrete, plasterboard or sprayed with a coating to insulate it from the heat of the fire or it can be protected by a fire resistant ceiling construction.
The exterior "skin" of the building is anchored to the frame using a variety of
constructiontechniques and following a huge variety of architectural styles. Bricks, stone, reinforced concrete, architectural glass, sheet metaland simply paint have been used to cover the frame to protect the steel from the weather.
Light steel framing
Thin sheets of galvanized steel can be formed into "steel studs" used as a
building materialfor rough-framing in commercial or residential construction (pictured), and many other applications. The dimension of the room is established with horizontal track that is anchored to the floor and ceiling to outline each room. The vertical studs are arranged in the tracks, usually spaced 16" apart, and fastened at the top and bottom. This creates a framework to support drywallor other finish materials.
The primary shapes used in residential
constructionare the C-shape stud and the U-shaped track, and a variety of other shapes. Framing members are generally produced in a thickness of 12 to 25 gauge. The wall finish is anchored to the two flangesides of the stud, which varies from 1-1/4" to 3" thick, and the width of webranges from 1-5/8" to 14". Rectangular sections are removed from the web to provide access for electrical wiring.
Steel mills produce galvanized sheet steel, the base material for light-gauge steel. Sheet steel is then roll-formed into the final profiles used for framing. The sheets are zinc coated (galvanized) to prevent
oxidationand corrosion. Steel framing provides excellent design flexibility due to the inherent strength of steel, which allows it to spanover a longer distance than wood, and also resist wind and earthquake loads.
Light Steel Framing has been extensively used in cold climate countries due to its good thermal and structural behaviour. Heat loss reduction and tenement thermal comfort have been the main driving forces defining the design of these frames. The main issue to be addressed is how striving for thermal efficiency can lead to structural weakening and poor fire performance [Steel frame#References|  .
Light Steel Framing: Improving the Integral Design. http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/1409
* [http://www.kuleuven.ac.be/bwk/materials/Teaching/master/wg01b/l0430.htm Historical Development of Iron and Steel in Buildings]
* [http://www.steelframing.org Steel Framing Alliance web site]
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