Kunze-Knorr brake

Kunze-Knorr brake

The Kunze-Knorr brake ("Kunze-Knorr-Bremse" or "KK-Bremse") is an automatic compressed-air brake for goods, passenger and express trains. It was the first graduated brake for goods trains in Europe. When it was introduced after the First World War, goods train brakes switched from hand operation to compressed-air in various European countries. The Deutsche Reichsbahn alone put the cost of equipping German goods wagons with Kunze-Knorr brakes between 1918 and 1927 at 478.4 million Reichsmarks. The operating cost savings from faster goods services and having fewer brakemen was assessed by the Reichsbahn at almost 96.3 million Reichsmark annually.

The Kunze-Knorr brake brought together the ideas of Prussian senior surveyor, Bruno Kunze (1854–1935), and preparatory work by the founder of Knorr-Bremse, Georg Knorr (1859–1911). It was the first, continuous, compressed-air brake that, even on long goods trains, enabled the brake force not only to be applied gradually, but also released again gradually. By combining a single-stage and a two-stage brake cylinder with a compound brake a significant increase in brake effort was achieved.

Three versions of the brake were developed: for goods trains (KKgbr), passenger trains (KKpbr) and express trains (KKsbr). The goods wagon variant offered the option of switching between empty and loaded braking. The passenger train version was given an accelerator valve ("Beschleunigungsventil") as well as a control valve. The express train brake had, in addition, a brake pressure regulator in order to prevent the wheels locking when braking quickly.

The Kunze-Knorr brake was developed and manufactured by the firm of Knorr-Bremse AG in Berlin. It was also produced by their subsidiary company Süddeutsche Bremsen-AG at what is nowadays the head office of Knorr-Bremse AG in Munich. A total of about 550,000 Kunze-Knorr brake control valves were made, some under licence. In the 1930s they were superseded by the Hildebrand-Knorr brake ("Hik" brake). In many places, including the Deutsche Reichsbahn in East Germany, they were still regularly in use until the 1960s.

Literature

Wilhelm Hildebrand, Die Entwicklung der selbsttätigen Einkammer-Druckluftbremse bei den europäischen Vollbahnen. Berlin 1927.

Jan-Henrik Peters, Personalpolitik und Rationalisierungsbestrebungen der Deutschen Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft zwischen 1924 und 1929. Frankfurt am Main u.a. 1996.

Jan-Henrik Peters, Rationalisierungsbestrebungen der Deutschen Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft zwischen 1924 und 1929, in: Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte 41, 1996, 187–200.

Manfred Pohl, Sicherheit auf Schiene und Straße. Die Geschichte der Knorr-Bremse AG. (engl. Ausgabe: Safety First by Road and Rail. The History of Knorr-Bremse AG.) München 2005.

ee also

* History of rail transport in Germany

External links

* http://www.knorr-bremse.com Website of the Knorr-Bremse company (German)
* http://www.bremsenbude.de Compressed-air brakes on railway vehicles (German)
* There is a relevant English-language forum at [http://germanrail.8.forumer.com/index.php Railways of Germany]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Knorr-Bremse AG — Unternehmensform Aktiengesellschaft ISIN …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Knorr-Bremse — AG Rechtsform Aktiengesellschaft Gründung 1905 Sitz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Georg Knorr — Infobox Person name = Theodor Georg Knorr caption = Georg Knorr birth date = November 13, 1859 birth place = Ruda, West Prussia death date = April 15, 1911 death place = Davos, Switzerland other names = known for = Invention of railway air brakes …   Wikipedia

  • New York Air Brake — NYAB redirects here. For other uses, see NYAB (disambiguation). New York Air Brake Type Privately Held Company Founded 1890 Headquarters Watertown, New York USA …   Wikipedia

  • Railway brake — A traditional clasp brake: the brake shoe (brown) bears on the surface (tyre) of the wheel (red), and is operated by the levers (grey) on the left …   Wikipedia

  • Railway air brake — Piping diagram from 1920 of a Westinghouse E T Air Brake system on a locomotive …   Wikipedia

  • Emergency brake (train) — This article is about emergency brakes on trains. For emergency brakes in cars, see hand brake. Driver s brake handle in a UK Electric Multiple Unit On trains, the expression emergency brake has several meanings: The maximum brake force available …   Wikipedia

  • Countersteam brake — A countersteam brake is a brake on a steam locomotive that uses the engine (specifically the cylinders) to help brake the locomotive. It uses the working principle of steam cylinders fitted with slide or piston valves such that, by changing the… …   Wikipedia

  • Counter-pressure brake — The counter pressure brake (German: Gegendruckbremse), also named the Riggenbach counter pressure brake after its inventor, Niklaus Riggenbach, is a dynamic railway brake on steam locomotives that, through a combination of means, brakes the… …   Wikipedia

  • Austauschbauart — The so called Austauschbauart wagons were German railway vehicles produced from the late 1920s onwards which had common components built to agreed standards. Origin of the conceptThe German term Austauschbau ( interchangeable component… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”