- Rup dialects
The Rup dialects, or the Southeastern dialects, are a group of Bulgarian dialects located east of the
yatboundary, thus being part of the Eastern Bulgarian dialects. The range of the Rup dialects includes the southern part of Thrace, i.e. Strandzha, the region of Haskovo, the Rhodopesand the eastern half of Pirin Macedonia. Before the Balkan warsand World War I, the Rup dialects covered a much larger territory, including vast areas of Eastern Thrace, Western Thraceand the eastern part of Greek Macedonia. Following the wars, most of the Bulgarian population in these areas fled or resettled to Bulgariaand nowadays, the Rup dialects outside Bulgaria are spoken only by the Muslim Bulgarians(Pomaks) in Western Thrace in Greece. Unlike the Northwestern or the Balkan dialects, the dialects included in the Rup group are not uniform and have vastly different phonological characteristics. What brings them together is the vast array of reflexes of Old Church Slavonic Unicode|ѣ (yat). Whereas the Western Bulgarian dialects have only IPA|ɛ for yatin all positions and the Balkan dialectshave IPA|ʲa or IPA|ɛ, depending on the character of the following syllable, the Rup dialects feature a number of different reflexes, none of which is similar to the ones in the Western Bulgarian or the Balkan dialects. These reflexes include: IPA|ʲa in all positions, broad е (IPA|æ) in all positions, IPA|ʲa before a hard syllable and broad e (IPA|æ) before a soft syllable, broad e (IPA|æ) in a stressed syllable and normal e in an unstressed syllable, etc. etc.
Phonological and morphological characteristics
The following phonological and morphological characteristics apply to all Rup dialects:
* щ/жд (IPA|ʃt/IPA|ʒd) for Proto-Slavic IPA|*tʲ/IPA|*dʲ (as in Standard Bulgarian) - "леща, между" (lentils, between)
* A large number of palatal consonants in all possible positions of the word: "кIPA|ʲитIPA|ʲкIPA|ʲи" vs. formal Bulgarian "китки" (wrists)
* Soft (palatal) ж IPA|/ʒ/, ш IPA|/ʃ/, ч IPA|/ʧ/: "жIPA|ʲаба" vs. formal Bulgarian "жаба" (frog). The Rup dialects are very archaic with regard to this as in all other Bulgarian dialects, these consonants have become hard and are now part of the hard consonants
* Preserved consonant х (IPA|x) in all positions: "ходи" (walks)
* Widespread labialisation of IPA|i into IPA|u: "йуме" vs. formal Bulgarian "име" (name)
* Transition of the consonant group -дн into -нн: "гланна" vs. formal Bulgarian "гладна" (hungry) (cf.
Division of the Rup dialects
The Rup dialects can furthermore be divided into two large groups, "true" Rup dialects (further divided into western and eastern Rup dialects based on geographical grounds) and Rhodopean dialects. The two groups are sometimes treated as separate dialectal groups. The "true" Rup dialects include the
Strandzha dialect, the Thracian dialect, the Serres-Nevrokop dialectand, with some reservations, the Babyak and Razlog dialects. The Rhodopean dialects comprise the Smolyan, Hvoyna, Paulician and Chepino dialect, whereas the Zlatograd dialectis transitional between the two groups. The Babyak and Razlog dialectare usually classified as Rup dialects on account of the reflexes of Old Church Slavonic Unicode|ѣ (yat). However, most of their other phonological properties are similar or identical to the ones of the Southwestern Bulgarian dialects, and especially to the Samokov and Ihtiman dialect, and that's why they are often considered to be transitional between the two groups.
Phonological and morphological characteristics of the "true" Rup dialects
* The reflex of Old Church Slavonic yat is usually IPA|ʲa before a hard syllable and broad e (IPA|æ) before a soft syllable: "бял/бIPA|æли" instead of formal Bulgarian "бял/бели" (white)
* Vowel reduction of unstressed IPA|/a/, IPA|/ɛ/ and IPA|/ɔ/ which is weaker than the reduction in the
Balkan dialects, yet stronger than the one accepted in the formal language
* Transition of a into IPA|/ɛ/ or broad e (IPA|æ) after a soft (palatal) consonant and before a soft syllable: "жаба-жеби/жIPA|æби" (frog-frogs), "чаша-чеши/чIPA|æши" (cup-cups), "пиян-пийени/пийIPA|æни" (drunk sing. - drunk pl.), which is similar to the one in the
Central Balkan dialect. This is not accepted in Standard Bulgarian, which has instead adopted Western Bulgarian "жаба-жаби", "чаша-чаши", "пиян-пияни"
* ъ (IPA|ə) for Old Church Slavonic Unicode |ѫ (yus) and ъ (IPA|ə) (as in Standard Bulgarian) – "мъш, сън" (man, sleep)
* IPA|ɛ for both Old Church Slavonic little yus (Unicode|ѧ) and ь (Standard Bulgarian has IPA|ɛ for the little yus and IPA|ə for the small jer)
* Suffix -цкIPA|ʲи instead of -ски for qualitative adjectives: "женцкIPA|ʲи" instead of formal Bulgarian "женски" (female)
Phonological and morphological characteristics of the Rhodopean dialects
The Rhodopean dialects occupy the middle part of the Rup dialects, i.e. the central and western
Rhodopes. Due to the mountainous terrain and the relative isolation the speakers which lasted well into the beginning of the 20th century, the Rhodopean dialects are both very well preserved and extremely idiosyncratic with regard to the other Bulgarian dialects. The Rhodopean dialects have the following common phonological and morphological properties:
* Broad e (IPA|æ) for Old Church Slavonic
yatin all positions and regardless of the word stress and the character of the following syllable: "бIPA|æл/бIPA|æли" vs. formal Bulgarian "бял/бели" (white), "голIPA|ʲIPA|æм"/"голIPA|ʲIPA|æми" vs. formal Bulgarian "голям/големи" (big). This makes the Rhodopean dialects extremely archaic as the broad e is considered to be the original pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic yat
* Full transition of a into broad e (IPA|æ) after a soft (palatal) consonant: "жIPA|ʲIPA|æбa" (frog), "чIPA|ʲIPA|æшa" (cup)
* Merger of Old Church Slavonic big yus Unicode |ѫ, little yus Unicode|ѧ, ь and ъ into one vowel which is different, depending on the individual dialect
* Lack of consonants дж IPA|/ʤ/ and дз IPA|/ʣ/ - ж IPA|/ʒ/ and з IPA|/z/ are pronounced instead: "жIPA|ʲам" vs. Standard Bulgarian "джам" (windowpane)
Стойков, Стойко: Българска диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", 2006 [http://www.promacedonia.org/jchorb/st/st_2_b_izt_3.htm]
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