Kindling model

Kindling model

Kindling is a widely used model for the development of seizures and epilepsy in which the duration and behavioral involvement of induced seizures increases after seizures are induced repeatedly.cite journal |author=Bertram E |title=The relevance of kindling for human epilepsy |journal=Epilepsia |volume=48 |issue=Supplement 2 |pages=65–74 |year=2007 |pmid=17571354 |doi=10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01068.x] It is used by scientists to study the effects of repeated seizures on the brain. A seizure may increase the likelihood that more seizures will occur; an old saying in epilepsy research is "seizures beget seizures". Repeated stimulation "lowers the threshold" for more seizures to occur.cite journal|title=The pathophysiology of post traumatic epilepsy|author=PK Sahoo, KI Mathai, GV Ramdas, MN Swamy |journal=Indian Journal of Neurotrauma|volume=4| issue=1 |page=11–14|date=2007 |url=] In the kindling model, seizures begin to occur spontaneously after repeated subconvulsive stimul.cite journal |author=Temkin NR, Jarell AD, Anderson GD |title=Antiepileptogenic agents: how close are we? |journal=Drugs |volume=61 |issue=8 |pages=1045–55 |year=2001 |pmid=11465868 ]

The brains of experimental animals are repeatedly stimulated, usually with electricity, to induce the seizures. Chemicals may also be used to induce seizures. The seizure that occurs after the first such electrical stimulation lasts a short time and is accompanied by a small amount of behavioral effects compared with seizures that result from repeated stimulations. With further seizures, the accompanying behavior intensifies, for example progressing from freezing in early stimulations to convulsions in later ones.cite journal |author=Morimoto K, Fahnestock M, Racine RJ |title=Kindling and status epilepticus models of epilepsy: Rewiring the brain |journal=Prog. Neurobiol. |volume=73 |issue=1 |pages=1–60 |year=2004 |month=May |pmid=15193778 |doi=10.1016/j.pneurobio.2004.03.009] The lengthening of duration and intensification of behavioral accompaniment eventually reaches a plateau after repeated stimulation. Even if animals are left unstimulated for as long as 12 weeks, the effect remains; the response to stimulation remains higher than it had been before.

It has been reported that repeated seizure stimulation can result in spontaneous seizures, but studies have had conflicting findings on this question. In humans, some seizure disorders come to an end by themselves even after large numbers of seizures. However, in both human epilepsy and in some animal models, evidence suggests that a process like that found in kindling does occur.

The kindling model was first proposed in the late 1960s by Goddard and colleagues.cite journal |author= Sato M|title=Kindling: An experimental model of epilepsy |journal=Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences |volume=36 |issue=4 |pages=440–441 |year=2008 |pmid= |doi=10.1111/j.1440-1819.1982.tb03123.x |url= |format=PDF] Although kindling is widely a widely used model, its applicability to human epilepsy is controversial.

The word "kindling" is a metaphor: the increase in response to small stimuli is similar to the way small burning twigs can produce a large fire.cite book |chapter=The kindling model of epilepsy |author=Abel MS, McCandless DW |editor=Adams RN, Baker GB, Baker JM, Bateson AN, Boisvert DPJ, Boulton AA, "et al." |title=Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease |publisher=Humana Press |location=Totowa, NJ |year=1992 |pages=153–155 |isbn=0-89603-211-6 ]

ee also



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kindling — may refer to: * Material for starting a fire, especially small pieces of dry wood * Kindling model, the process by which major epileptic seizures are triggered by repeated small electrical or chemical stimulation to the brain * The 1973 album… …   Wikipedia

  • Post-traumatic epilepsy — Classification and external resources eMedicine NEURO/318 MeSH D004834 Post traumatic epilep …   Wikipedia

  • Epileptogenesis — is a process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy, a chronic condition in which seizures occur.cite journal |author=McNamara JO, Huang YZ, Leonard AS |title=Molecular signaling mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis |journal=Sci. STKE |volume …   Wikipedia

  • Dimethyltryptamine — Systematic (IUPAC) name 2 (1H indol 3 yl) N …   Wikipedia

  • Substantia nigra — Brain: Substantia nigra Section through superior colliculus showing Substantia nigra …   Wikipedia

  • Topiramate — drugbox IUPAC name = 2,3:4,5 Bis O (1 methylethylidene) beta D fructopyranose sulfamate width = 191 CAS number = 97240 79 4 ATC prefix = N03 ATC suffix = AX11 ATC supplemental = PubChem = 5284627 DrugBank = APRD00237 C = 12 | H = 21 | N = 1 | O …   Wikipedia

  • Racine stages — In the kindling model of epilepsy, the brain receives electrical shocks or chemical injections to induce acute seizures. With repetition, these seizures become chronic and spontaneous, creating a useful animal model within which to study epilepsy …   Wikipedia

  • Hypomania — This article is an expansion of a section entitled Hypomania from within the main article: Bipolar disorder .Hypomania (literally, below mania) is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elevated or irritable mood, and thoughts and …   Wikipedia

  • Sensitization — is an example of non associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al., 1995). An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of… …   Wikipedia

  • BASHYAZI — (Heb. בשיצי; traditional Rabbanite transcription for the Turkish name Bashyatchi), family of Karaite scholars in Adrianople and Constantinople. Although the family moved to Constantinople in 1455, they retained the cognomen Adrianopolitans   even …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”