Endemic birds of Australia

Endemic birds of Australia

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the world's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

Patterns of endemism

Family-level endemism is prominent in Australia. The Australasian biogeographic region has the highest number of endemic families of any zoogeographic region except the Neotropics, and many of these families are endemic to Australia itself — the country therefore stakes a strong claim to be the world's greatest hotspot of bird endemism.

Australian endemic and near-endemic families

The Australian endemic families are:
* Emu, a well-known monotypic family; the Emu is found in rural areas throughout the continent
* Plains-wanderer, a monotypic family; Plains-wanderer is restricted to arid inland areas in the southeast of Australia
* the Lyrebirds, two forest-dwelling species of southeast Australia
* the Scrub-birds, two forest-dwelling species, one found in southeastern Australia, the other in southwest Australia

In addition to the families listed above, the following families are endemic to the Australasian region, with most of their species endemic to Australia:

* the Australasian babblers — four of the five species in this family are endemic to Australia
* the Fairy-wrens and allies

A further group of families endemic to the Australasian region, but where the species are predominantly New Guinea endemics are listed in the article on endemic birds of New Guinea.

Endemic Bird Areas

Birdlife International has defined the following Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs) in Australia:

Christmas Island, an Australian territory, is also an EBA.

In addition the following are classified as Secondary areas (areas with at least one restricted-range bird species, but not meeting the criteria to qualify as EBAs):

"To be completed later.

List of species

The following is a list of bird species endemic to Australia:

pecies endemic to coastal eastern Australia

pecies endemic to the Cape York peninsula

* Buff-breasted Buttonquail
* Golden-shouldered Parrot
* White-streaked Honeyeater

pecies endemic to the Queensland Wet Tropics

* Lesser Sooty-owl
* Chowchilla
* Fernwren
* Atherton Scrubwren
* Mountain Thornbill
* Grey-headed Robin
* Pied Monarch
* Bower's Shrike-thrush
* Bridled Honeyeater
* Macleay Honeyeater
* Tooth-billed Catbird
* Golden Bowerbird
* Victoria's Riflebird

pecies endemic to eastern Australia

* Black-breasted Buttonquail
* Albert's Lyrebird
* Rufous Scrub-bird
* Eastern Bristlebird
* Pilotbird
* Origma
* Green Catbird
* Regent Bowerbird
* Paradise Riflebird

pecies found in more than one of the above areas, but not elsewhere

* Lovely Fairywren (Cape York, Queensland Wet Tropics)
* Yellow-spotted Honeyeater (Cape York, Queensland Wet Tropics)
* Pale-yellow Robin (Queensland Wet Tropics, eastern Australia)

pecies endemic to south-eastern Australia

"To be completed later.

pecies endemic to Tasmania

* King Island Emu (extinct)
* Tasmanian Native-hen
* Green Rosella
* Orange-bellied Parrot (endemic as a breeding species, winters in south-east mainland Australia)
* Swift Parrot (endemic as a breeding species, winters in eastern and south-east mainland Australia)
* Brown Scrubwren
* Scrubtit
* Tasmanian Thornbill
* Dusky Robin
* Forty-spotted Pardalote
* Yellow-throated Honeyeater
* Black-headed Honeyeater
* Strong-billed Honeyeater
* Yellow Wattlebird
* Black Currawong

pecies endemic to south-west Australia

* Baudin's Cockatoo
* Carnaby's Cockatoo
* Western Corella
* Western Rosella
* Red-capped Parrot
* Noisy Scrub-bird
* Western Thornbill
* Red-winged Fairy-wren
* Western Bristlebird
* Western Wattlebird
* Western Spinebill
* White-breasted Robin
* Western Shrike-tit (often regarded as a subspecies of the Crested Shrike-tit)
* Red-eared Firetail

pecies endemic to north-west Australia

* Chestnut-backed Buttonquail
* Partridge Pigeon
* White-quilled Rock-pigeon
* Chestnut-quilled Rock-pigeon
* Black-banded Fruit-dove
* Hooded Parrot
* Rainbow Pitta
* White-throated Grasswren
* Black Grasswren
* Brown Whistler
* White-lined Honeyeater
* Yellow-rumped Munia

The Chestnut Rail is near-endemic to this region of Australia, elsewhere only being found on the Aru Islands.

Other endemics

* Emu
* Australian Painted Snipe
* Superb Lyrebird
* Carpentarian Grasswren

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