# Kaleidoscope

Kaleidoscope

A kaleidoscope is a tube of mirrors containing loose colored beads, pebbles or other small colored objects. The viewer looks in one end and light enters the other end, reflecting off the mirrors. Typically there are two rectangular lengthwise mirrors. Setting of the mirrors at 45° creates eight duplicate images of the objects, six at 60°, and four at 90°. As the tube is rotated, the tumbling of the colored objects presents the viewer with varying colors and patterns. Any arbitrary pattern of objects shows up as a beautiful symmetric pattern because of the reflections in the mirrors. A two-mirror model yields a pattern or patterns isolated against a solid black background, while a three-mirror (closed triangle) model yields a pattern that fills the entire field.

For a 2D symmetry group, a kaleidoscopic point is a point of intersection of two or more lines of reflection symmetry. In the case of a discrete group the angle between consecutive lines is 180°/"n" for an integer "n"≥2. At this point there are "n" lines of reflection symmetry, and the point is a center of "n"-fold rotational symmetry. See also symmetry combinations.Modern kaleidoscopes are made of brass tubes, stained glass, wood, steel, gourds and most any other material an artist can sculpt or manipulate. The part of the kaleidoscope which holds objects to be viewed is called an object chamber or cell. Object cells may contain almost any material. Sometimes the object cell is filled with liquid so the items float and move through the object cell with slight movement from the person viewing.

Etymology

First attested 1817 in English, the word "kaleidoscope" derives from the Greek "καλός" ("kalos"), "beautiful" [ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2352841 Kalos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus] ] + "είδος" ("eidos"), "shape" [ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2330867 Eidos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus] ] + "σκοπέω" ("scopeο"), "to look at, to examine" [ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2395112 Skopeo, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus] ] [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=kaleidoscope&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary] ] .

History

Known to the ancient Greeks, it was reinvented by Sir David Brewster in 1816 while conducting experiments on light polarization; Brewster patented it in 1817. His initial design was a tube with pairs of mirrors at one end, and pairs of translucent disks at the other, and beads between the two. Initially intended as a science tool, the kaleidoscope was quickly copied as a toy. Brewster believed he would make money from his popular invention; however, a fault in the wording of his patent allowed others to copy his invention.Fact|date=August 2008

In America, Charles Bush popularized the kaleidoscope. Today, these early products often sell for over \$1,000.Cozy Baker collected kaleidoscopes and wrote books about the artists who were making them in the 1970s through 2000. Baker is credited with energizing a renaissance in kaleidoscope-making in America. In 1997 a short lived magazine dedicated to kaleidoscopes called Kaleidoscope Review was published covering artists, collectors, dealers, events, and how-to articles.

Craft galleries often carry a few, while others specialize in them and carry dozens of different types from different artists and craftspeople.

Kaleidoscopes are related to hyperbolic geometry.

Background

For some background on the geometry of the kaleidoscope, see Reflection group.

ee also

* Teleidoscope
* Kaleidoplex

References

* [http://artineck.googlepages.com/12inHU2.htm 12 in HU, moving interactive kaleidoscope]
* [http://www.mentalfx.com/kaleidoscope-dvd/index.html Kaleidoscope DVD]
* [http://finitegeometry.org/sc/16/kal/ Literary and Philosophical Remarks] .
* [http://www.thebigcamera.com.au/Kaleidoscope.html Kaleidoscope History]
* [http://www.kaleidoscopesusa.com/makeAscope.htm How to make a Kaleidoscope ]
* [http://www.kaleidica.com Digital Kaleidoscope] the Kaleidica
* [http://www.waynesthisandthat.com/kaleidoscopes2.htm Kaleidoscope Mirror Designs]
* [http://www.Whizical.com/KalProg.htm Kaleider] Digital Imagery
* [http://www.photoechoes.com/ PhotoEchoes] Digital Kaleidoscope

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### Look at other dictionaries:

• kaléidoscope — [ kaleidɔskɔp ] n. m. VAR. caléidoscope • 1818 fig.; angl. kaleidoscope (1817), du gr. kalos « beau », eîdos « aspect » et skopein « regarder », cf. scope 1 ♦ Petit instrument cylindrique, dont le fond est occupé par des fragments mobiles de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

• Kaleidoscope — puede referirse a las siguientes acepciones: Música Kaleidoscope: grupo musical estadounidense de Acid folk, popular en los años 60. Kaleidoscope: grupo musical inglés de folk rock, popular en los años 60. Kaleidoscope: álbum de Siouxsie the… …   Wikipedia Español

• Kaleidoscope — студийный альбом Siouxsie and the Banshees Дата выпуска 1 августа 1980 Жанр …   Википедия

• Kaleidoscope — (englisch für Kaleidoskop) ist: Kaleidoscope (US Band), eine US amerikanische Rockband der 1960er Jahre Kaleidoscope (Britische Band), eine britische Rockband der 1960er Jahre Kaleidoscope (Album), ein Album der US amerikanischen R B Sängerin… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

• Kaleidoscope — Ka*lei do*scope, n. [Gr. ? beautiful + e i^dos form + scope.] An instrument invented by Sir David Brewster, which contains loose fragments of colored glass, etc., and reflecting surfaces so arranged that changes of position exhibit its contents… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• kaléidoscope — KALÉIDOSCOPE: Ne s emploie qu à propos des salons de peinture …   Dictionnaire des idées reçues

• kaleidoscope — 1817, lit. observer of beautiful forms, coined by its inventor, Scottish scientist David Brewster (1781 1868), from Gk. kalos beautiful + eidos shape (see OID (Cf. oid)) + SCOPE (Cf. scope), on model of TELESCOPE (Cf. telescope), etc. They sold… …   Etymology dictionary

• kaleidoscope — ► NOUN 1) a toy consisting of a tube containing mirrors and pieces of coloured glass or paper, whose reflections produce changing patterns when the tube is rotated. 2) a constantly changing pattern or sequence. DERIVATIVES kaleidoscopic adjective …   English terms dictionary

• kaleidoscope — [kə lī′də skōp΄] n. [< Gr kalos, beautiful + eidos, form (see OID) + SCOPE] 1. a tubular instrument containing loose bits of colored glass, plastic, etc. reflected by mirrors so that various symmetrical patterns appear when the tube is held to …   English World dictionary

• Kaléidoscope — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Kaléidoscope (homonymie). Vue à travers un kaléidoscope. Le kaléidoscope est un tube de miroirs réfléchissant à l infini et en …   Wikipédia en Français