- Hymns for the Amusement of Children
"Hymns for the Amusement of Children" (1771) was the final work completed by
Christopher Smart. It was completed while Smart was imprisoned for outstanding debt at the King's Bench Prison, and the work is his final exploration of religion. Although Smart spent a large portion of his life in and out of debt, he was unable to survive his time in the prison and died soon after completing the "Hymns".
Smart's "Hymns" are one of the first works of hymns dedicated to children, and they are intended to teach Christian virtues. Unlike some of the other works produced by Christopher Smart after his release from a mental asylum, such as "
A Song to David" or " Hymns and Spiritual Songs", this work was a success and went into many immediate editions. Part of the success of this work lies in the simplicity and accessibility of the text. However, Smart died before he ever saw the proceeds of the work and never learned of the book's success.
On April 20, 1770, Smart was arrested for debt. [Mounsey p. 271] On January 11, 1771, he was recommended to the
King's Bench Prison.Mounsey p. 272] Although he was in prison, Charles Burney purchased the "Rules" (allowing him some freedom) in order to help make Christopher's final weeks peaceful although pathetic. [Rizzo p. 515] In his final letter, written to Rev. Mr. Jackson, Smart begged for three shillings in order to purchase food. [Dearnley p. 11] Soon after, Smart died, 20 May 1771, from either liver failure or pneumonia, after completing his final work, "Hymns, for the Amusement of Children".
It is unknown how many poems published in the "Hymns" were written before Smart was imprisoned or during his final days, but at least one, titled "Against Despair" was produced during this time."Poetical Works" p. 309] A different version of the poem was published after his death in the "Gentleman's Magazine" ["Poetical Works" p. 463] This version included a note claiming, "Extempore by the late C. Smart, in the King's-Bench," which verifies that he was writing hymns throughout this time, or, at least, editing them to create a better version.
Although five editions of the "Hymns" were published in the 18th century, only one edition was published before Christopher Smart died. ["Poetical Works" p. 314-315] This edition was published by his brother-in-law, Thomas Carnan, and was announced in the "Public Advertiser"
27 December 1770.Sherbo p. 259] However, this edition did not list Smart as the author. It is possible that there was a sixth edition of the "Hymns", but that has since "disappeared"; there is also a possible pirated edition produced by Thomas Walker. ["Poetical Works" p. 316] Although the work made it as far as Boston, Massachusetts, as shown by an advertisement for selling the work in 1795, no Boston editions have been found, but such editions could exist in addition to the Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniaedition. ["Poetical Works" p. 317]
Christopher Smart's first children's hymn was "A Morning Hymn, for all the little good boys and girls" in the "Lilliputian Magazine" in 1751. During this time, there were only two models for him to base his children's hymns on: the works of
Isaac Wattsand of Charles Wesley."Poetical Works" p. 310] Watts's work attempted to amuse children while Wesley's attempted to simplify morality for them. It is possible that Smart's "Hymns" were not modelled on Watts's or Wesley's actual hymns or songs, but instead after a note in Watts's work the "Divine Songs" which says::"A Slight Specimen of Moral Songs, such as I wish some happy and condescending genius would undertake for the use of children, and perform much better... The sense and subjects might be borrow'd plentifully from the "Proverbs of Solomon", from all the common appearances of nature, from all the occurrences in the civil life, both in city and country: (which would also afford matter for other Divine Songs.) Here the language and measures should be easy and flowing with chearfulness, and without the solemnities of religion, or the sacred names of God and holy things; that children might find delight and profit together." [Watts, Isaac. "Divine Songs". ed. J.H.P. Pafford, 1971. p. 193] ["Poetical Works" p. 312]
The work was dedicated "to his Royal Highness Prince Frederick, Bishop of Osnabrug, these hymns, composed for his amusement, are, with all due Submission and Respect, humbly inscribed to him, as the best of Bishops, by his Royal Highness's Most Obedient and Devoted Servant, Christopher Smart." ["Poetical Works" p. 323] Although the prince, the second son of King George III, was only seven at the time, Smart was given special permission to dedicate the work to the boy through the intervention with the royal family by either Richard Dalton or the King's Chaplain, Rev. William Mason. [Dearnley p. 283]
Hymns for the Amusement of Children
In essence, the "Hymns for the Amusement of Children" is intended to teach children the specific virtues that make up the subject matter of the work. [Curry p. 93] While trying to accomplish this goal, Christopher emphasizes the joy of creation and Christ's sacrifice that allowed for future salvation. ["Prose Works" p. 311] However, he didn't just try to spread joy, but structured his poems to treat valuable lessons about morality; his subjects begin with the three
Theological Virtues(Faith, Hope, and Charity), then the four Cardinal Virtues(Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude) and adds Mercy. ["Poetical Works" p. 313] The next six hymns deal with Christian duties and are followed by ten hymns on the Gospels. ["Poetical Works" p. 313-314] The final works introduce the miscellaneous Christian virtues that were necessary to complete Christopher's original self-proclaimed "plan to make good girls and boys." ["Poetical Works" p. 314]
All but three of the hymns were provided with a corresponding woodblock illustration.Dearnley p. 300] The original illustrations either represented the scene of the hymn or a symbolic representation of the hymn. However, later editions of the work sometimes included illustrations that did not match the corresponding hymn, which was the fault of "a general deterioration of standards in book production". With such possibilities, it is hard to justify an exact relationship between any particular hymn and illustration. [Dearnley p. 301]
There are thirty-nine hymns included in "Hymns for the Amusement of Children":
* I. Faith
* II. Hope
* III. Charity
* IV. Prudence
* V. Justice
* VI. Mercy
* VII. Temperance
* VIII. Fortitude
* IX. Moderation
* X. Truth
* XI. Beauty
* XII. Honesty
* XIII. Elegance
* XIV. Loveliness
* XV. Taste
* XVI. Learning
* XVII. Praise
* XVIII. Prayer
* XIX. Patience
* XX. Watching
* XXI. Generosity
* XXII. Gratitude
* XXIII. Peace
* XXIV. Melancholy
* XXV. Mirth
* XXVI. Mutual Subjection
* XXVII. Good-nature to Animals
* XXVIII. Silence
* XXIX. Long-suffering of God
* XXX. Honour
* XXXI. Immortality
* XXXII. Against Despair
* XXXIII. For Saturday
* XXIV. For Sunday
* XXXV. At Dressing in the Morning
* XXXVI. At Undressing in the Evening
* XXXVII. Pray remember the Poor
* XXXVIII. Plenteous Redemption
* XXXIX. The Conclusion of the Matter
Besides the hymns that are "expected" in a book of hymns, Arthur Sherbo points out that the collection contains hymns "on learning and on 'good-nature to animals'."Sherbo p. 260] In particular, he emphasizes Hymn XXV "Mirth" as "showing anew the love for flowers that is a recurring characteristic of his poetry" as it reads:
::"If you are merry sing away,:::"And touch the organs sweet;::"This is the Lord's triumphant day,::"Ye children in the gall'ries gay,:::"Shout from each goodly seat.
::"It shall be May to-morrow's morn,:::"A field then let us run,::"And deck us in the blooming thorn,::"Soon as the cock begins to warn,:::"And long before the sun.
::"I give the praise to Christ alone,:::"My pinks already shew;::"And my streak'd roses fully blown,::"The sweetness of the Lord make known,:::"And to his glory grow.
::"Ye little prattlers that repair:::"For cowslips in the mead,::"Of those exulting colts beware,::"But blythe security is there,:::"Where skipping lambkins feed.
::"With white and crimson laughs the sky,:::"With birds the hedge-rows ring;::"To give the praise to God most high,::"And all the sulky fiends defy,:::"Is a most joyful thing."
Long-Suffering of God
According to Moira Dearnley, Hymn XXIX "Long-Suffering of God" is "one of the more pathetic poems in "Hymns for the Amusement of Children"."Dearnley p. 303] As a poem, it "restates Smart's certainty that the long-suffering God will eventually bestow his grace upon the barren human soul" as it reads:
::"ONE hundred feet from off the ground::"That noble Aloe blows;::"But mark ye by what skill profound::"His charming grandeur rose.
::"One hundred years of patient care::"The gardners did bestow::"Toil and hereditary pray'r::"Made all this glorious show.
::"Thus man goes on from year to year,::"And bears no fruit at all;::"But gracious God, still unsevere,::"Bids show'rs of blessing fall.
::"The beams of mercy, dews of grace,::"Our Saviour still supplies-::"Ha! ha! the soul regains her place,::"And sweetens all the skies."
The Conclusion of the Matter
Smart's final poem of the work, XXXIX "The Conclusion of the Matter", demonstrates to Neil Curry that the "joy and optimism of [Smart] are unwavering."Curry p. 103] Smart "does not look back, he looks foward and the sequence ends on a note of triumph" as it reads:
::"Fear God - obey his just decrees,::"And do it hand, and heart, and knees;::"For after all our utmost care::"There's nought like penitence and prayer.
::"Then weigh the balance in your mind,::"Look forward, not one glance behind;::"Let no foul fiend retard your pace,::"Hosanna! Thou hast won the race."
However, as Curry claims, "in this world Smart himself had won nothing." Instead, Curry believes what Christopher Hunter stated about his uncle: "I trust he is now at peace; it was not his portion here."
Although he wrote his second set of hymns, "Hymns for the Amusement of Children", for a younger audience, Christopher cares more about emphasizing the need for children to be moral instead of "innocent". [Curry p. 91] These works have been seen as possibly too complicated for "amusement" because they employ ambiguities and complicated theological concepts. [Booth p. 71] In particular, Mark Booth questions "why, in this carefully polished writing.... are the lines sometimes relatively hard to read for their paraphrasable sense?" [Booth p. 68] Arthur Sherbo disagreed with this sentiment strongly and claims the "Hymns" However, he does admit some of the argument when he claims that "Generosity", along with a handful other hymns, was "not so simple and surely proved too much for the children for whom they were bought." [Sherbo p. 261]
Not all critics agree that the work is too complex for children, and some, like Marcus Walsh and Karina Williamson, view that the works would have fit the appropriate level for children in the 18th century, especially with the short length of each hymn and a small illustration of the scene proceeding each one. This is not to say that the works are "simple", because many words are complex, but, as Donald Davie explains, there is a "naiveté" in the work that allow them to be understood. [Davie p. 250] In particular, Moira Dearnley claims that the hymns contain a "high-spirited delight in the day-to-day life of children, the joy that characterizes the best the "Hymns for the Amusement of Children"." [Dearnley p. 297]
* Booth, Mark W. "Syntax and Paradigm in Smart's Hymns for the Amusement of Children." In "Christopher Smart and the Enlightenment", edited by Clement Hawes, 67-81. New York, NY: St. Martin's, 1999. 308 pp.
* Curry, Neil. "Christopher Smart". Devon: Northcote House Publishers, 2005. 128 pp.
* Davie, Donald. "Christopher Smart: Some Neglected Poems", "Eighteenth-Century Studies" iii (1969-1970): 242-262
* Dearnley, Moira. "The Poetry of Christopher Smart". New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969. 332 pp.
* Mounsey, Chris. "Christopher Smart: Clown of God". Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2001. 342 pp.
* Rizzo, Betty. "Christopher Smart: A Letter and Lines from a Prisoner of the King's Bench." "Review of English Studies: A Quarterly Journal of English Literature and the English Language" 35, 140 (Nov. 1984): 510-16.
* Smart, Christopher. "The Poetical Works of Christopher Smart, II: Religious Poetry 1763-1771". Ed. Marcus Walsh and Karina Williamson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1983. 472 pp.
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