- Hydrological modelling
Hydrologic models are simplified, conceptual representations of a part of the hydrologic cycle. They are primarily used for hydrologic prediction and for understanding hydrologic processes. Two major types of hydrologic models can be distinguished:
* Stochastic Models. These models are black box systems, based on data and using mathematical and statistical concepts to link a certain input (for instance
rainfall) to the model output (for instance runoff). Commonly used techniques are regression, transfer functions, neural networksand system identification. These models are known as stochastic hydrology models.
* Process-Based Models. These models try to represent the physical processes observed in the real world. Typically, such models contain representations of
surface runoff, subsurface flow, evapotranspiration, and channel flow, but they can be far more complicated. These models are known as deterministic hydrology models. Deterministic hydrology models can be subdivided into single-event models and continuous simulation models.Recent research in hydrologic modeling tries to have a more global approach to the understanding of the behaviour of hydrologic systems to make better predictions and to face the major challenges in water resources management
urface water modelling
Runoff model (empirical)
These models use an empirical method to convert rainfall volume into runoff volume. An example is the Curve Number method.
Runoff model (reservoir)
These models describe rainfall-runoff relations using the concept of a (non)linear reservoir.
Hydrological transport model
These models describe the flow and routing of water once it has entered a river/stream system and the transport of dissolved or suspended material and debris in a river/stream. Examples include
MIKE 11, MOHID, WAFLEXand DSSAM.
Many models combine two of these types, for example HBV, which is combines an emperical runoff model and a hydrological transport model. Some models combine elements of surface water models and groundwater models, for example
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