- Lingual arch
A lingual arch is an orthodontic device which connects two molars in the upper or lower dental arch. The lower lingual arch (LLA) has an archwire adapted to the lingual side of the lower teeth. In the upper arch the archwire is usually connecting the two molars passing through the palatal vault, and is commonly referred as "Transpalatal Arch" (TPA).
LLA and TPA are fabricated by placing bands on the molars. These are connected to the archwire. The wire can be soldered to the bands or inserted into lingual sheaths welded to the molar band (removable LLA and TPA).
LLA is frequently used as a space maintainer for the lower
teeth. In such a case a LLA maintains the molarposition.LLA and TPA can also be used to stabilize molar position in the attempt to avoid side effects that can take place during orthodontic therapy. As a space maintainer LLA is frequentely used in cases where an early loss of the second deciduous molar takes place. In such a case LLA prevents the molars from migrating mesially (forward) thus blocking off the eruption space for the premolar teeth. LLA is also used in order to maintain the so called "Leeway space", which is the extra space available in the arch when the second deciduous molar is esfoliated and the second premolar erupts [The use of the lingual arch in the mixed dentition to resolve incisor crowding. PMID 10629524 ] . Active Use
LLA and TPA, if removable, can also be activated in order to obtain molar movements in all planes of space [Biomechanical fundamentals in the use of the transpalatal arch and the ligual arch. PMID 2074877 ] .LLA and TPA are more frequently activated to expand or reduce the intermolar distance and to rotate the molars. In this way it is possible to reshape the whole dental arch if molars are connected to the other teeth by means of a buccal archwire.
LLA and TPA archwires are usually made out of
stainless steelwith a 0.032" cross section for a passive use.A beta-titaniumwire is more effective if LLA or TPA must be activated to displace molars (Active Use).
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