Ancient Bulgarian calendar

Ancient Bulgarian calendar

The ancient Bulgarian calendar is based on observations of Jupiter (Yankul) and the Sun and is more precise than the modern Western calendar in use today. Under the ancient Bulgarian calendar system, the year has 365 (or 366) days, 4 quarters, 52 weeks and 13 months, of which the 13th consists of only 1 day (the New Year Day). Therefore, every year, the same date always falls on the same day of the week. This calendar is considered by UNESCO to be the most accurate calendar known to man.cn|date=May 2008

In the ancient Bulgarian chronology, there are periods of 3, 10, 12, 17, 19, 21, 30, 47, 50, 53, 300, 600, 4332, etc. ancient Bulgarian years that are used both as denominators and intervals of time. The longest one is of 6328 ancient Bulgarian years. It is mentioned in the fragmentary inscription of Khan Omurtag and refers to the year 823 AD. The text consists of 14 lines, probably the concluding part of a contract between Danube Bulgaria and the Eastern Roman Empire. The inscription is carved with beautiful letters on a marble stone most probably from the capital town of Pliska. Here is what it reads:

“ […of the ruler] the name is [Khan Omurtag Juvigi] . The year of the appearance of the true god was6328. They made a sacrifice and they swore in the written in the books [mutual contracts] …”
This historic source may be accepted as a proof of the early beginning of the chronology of the Bulgarian calendar. According to the counts of the great Bulgarian historian Professor Vassil Zlatarski the beginning is the year 5505 BC. Therefore, we can calculate that the year, 2001 AD, is the year 7506 of the ancient Bulgarian chronology. Thus, the Bulgarians are the people with the most ancient system of measuring time – a fact, which indicates their early civilizing force.

Animal figures of the ancient Bulgarian calendar:

1. Bore, Swine, Pig {In Bulgarian: Dok(s)}2. Mouse {In Bulgarian: Karan, Sursu, Somor, Shashi}3. Ox {In Bulgarian: Volyach, Buza, Bison, Shegor}4. Snow Leopard {In Bulgarian: Bars, Parus, Boris}5. Hare {In Bulgarian: Dvansh}6. Dragon {In Bulgarian: Ver, Kala, Hala, Drakon, Lamya}7. Snake {In Bulgarian: Attila, Dilom, Slav}8. Horse {In Bulgarian: Alasha, Tag, Tek, Tih}9. Monkey {In Bulgarian: Maimun(a), Pisin, Shebek}10. Ram {In Bulgarian: Rassate, Saver, Sever}11. Rooster {In Bulgarian: Tah, Toh}12. Dog {In Bulgarian: Kuche, Eth, Iht, Mugel}

Cyclical years according to Petar Dobrev

The Chatalar Inscription

Надпис 57
"Kana subigi Wmortag is tin gin opou egeniqin, ek Qeou arcon estin. is tis Plskas ton kanpon menonta epuisen aulinis tin toutzan ke me [tigagentin dunamin tou [is tous Grukos ke sklabous ketecneos epuisen gefu [ranis tin Toutzan me to aulinstulous tesaris ke e [pano tonstulon estisen leon [tas duo. o Qeos axiosi ton ek Qeou a-contan me ton poda aoutouton basilea kalo [patounta, eos treci h Toutza ke eos [----tous polous Boulgaris epecoun [ta, tous ecqrous autou upotasonta ceronta ke agaliomenos zisin eti ekaton. ito de o keros, otan ektistan, boulgaristi sigor elem, grikisti indiktionos ie| ."

Translation in bulgarian:
"Кан субиги Омуртаг е от Бога архонт в земята гдето се е родил. Обитавайки стана на Плиска, съгради малък стан на Тича и премести войската си срещу гърци и сляавяни. И направи изкусно мост на Тича заедно с малкия стан и постави в този малък стан четири колони, а върху колоните два лъва. Нека бог да удостои поставения от бога архонт, като гази добре с крака си императора, докато тече Тича и докато ..., като владее над многото българи и подчинява враговете си, да проживее в радост и веселие сто години. Времето пък, когато се съгради това, беше по български шегор елем, а по гръцки индиктион 15."

Translation in english:
"Kana subigi Omourtag is from God archont in the land, in which he has born. While dwelling the camp at Pliska, he built a small camp at Ticha and moved his army against greeks and slavs. And he made skillfully a bridge at Ticha along with the small camp and put in this small camp four columns, and above the columns two lions. May God honour the archont set by God, by mauling well with his foot the emperor, while Ticha flows and while ..., by ruling above the lots of bulgarians and submitting his enemies, may live in happiness and rejoicing a hundred years. Besides, the time, in which this was built, was in bulgarian "shegor elem", and in greek "indiction 15."

According to the Greek indiction system the only year in the reign of Khan Omurtag(814–831), which meets the date "indiction 15" is 822 AD. The Bulgarian date "shegor elem" represents the year of the Ox(Bull) according to both Vasil Zlatarski and Petar Dobrev, and elem represents the 1st month of the Bulgarian year.

There is no doubt about the similarities between the Bulgarian and Chinese calendars (the 12 year cicle, the animals, representing the years). However, it must be said that the Chinese calendar is lunisolar, and the Bulgarian is solar, which makes it more accurate. There is also a difference in the numbering of the years - the first year of the Chinese cycle is the year of the rat, while in Bulgarian the first is the pig. Therefore the year of the ox in the Chinese calendar is 821 AD, while the year of the ox in the Bulgarian one is 822 AD, i.e. we can see that the two systems in which the inscription is dated - the byzantian and the Bulgarian are relevant.

There is also a dating according to the ancient Bulgarian calendar in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans, where we can calculate the years of reigh of some of the Bulgarian Khans.

External links

* [http://www.bnr.bg/RadioBulgaria/Emission_English/Theme_History_And_Religion/Material/calendar.htm Article on Bulgarian calendar]
* [http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/pb_lang/index.html Book about Old Bulgarians]
* [http://www.sarakt.org/calendar.htm The Bulgarian calendar]
* [http://mandara.narod.ru/ednazhden_22.htm Ednazhden]
* [http://www.euro2001.net/issues/3_1997/7BR97F11.htm peripetiite na kalendara]
* [http://www.bnr.bg/RadioBulgaria/Emission_English/Theme_History_And_Religion/Material/ancient+calendar.htm History and Religion: Ancient Bulgarian calendar] , BNR Radio Bulgaria
* [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/europe/bulgaria.html The Bulgarians and their role in the formation of the Bulgarian State]


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