Taxobox | name = Leptostraca

image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Nebalia bipes"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
subphylum = Crustacea
classis = Malacostraca
subclassis = Phyllocarida
subclassis_authority = Packard, 1879
ordo = Leptostraca
ordo_authority = Claus, 1880 ITIS|ID=331680|taxon=Leptostraca]
subdivision_ranks = Families
subdivision = Nebaliidae Nebaliopsidae Paranebaliidae

Leptostraca (from the Greek words for "thin" and "shell" [cite web |url=http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?leptostraca |title=Leptostraca |publisher=Online Medical Dictionary |date=1998-03-01] ) is an order of small, marine crustaceans. Its members, including the well-studied "Nebalia", occur throughout the world's oceans and are usually considered to be filter-feeders Cite web |url=http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/www/leptostr.htm |author=J. K. Lowry |title=Leptostraca |work=Crustacea, the Higher Taxa: Description, Identification, and Information Retrieval |date=1999-10-02 |Publisher=Australian Museum] . It is the only extant order in the subclass Phyllocarida.


1: antennule; 2: rostrum; 3: carapace; 4: abdomen / pleon; 5: furca; 6: telson; 7: pleopods; 8: antenna; 9: thoracopods; 10: eyeLeptostracans are usually small (typically 5–15 mm long [cite web |url=http://www.answers.com/topic/phyllocarida-leptostracans-biological-family |author=Estela C. Lopretto |publisher=Answers.com |date=2003-07-30 |title=Phyllocarida] ) possess a head with stalked compound eyes, two pairs of antennae (one biramous, one uniramous) and a pair of mandibles but no maxillipeds . The carapace is large and comprises two valves which cover the head and the thorax, including most of the thoracic appendages, and houses as a brood pouch for the developing embryos. The abdomen has eight segments, six of which bear pleopods, and a pair of caudal furcae, which may be homologous to uropods of other crustaceans [cite journal |quotes=no |url= http://www.tiho-hannover.de/einricht/botanik/koenemann/knopfetal06.pdf |title=The urosome of the Pan- and Peracarida |author=F. Knopf, S. Koenemann, F. R. Schram & C. Wolff |year=2006 |journal=Contributions to Zoology |volume=75 |issue=1/2 |pages=1–21] .


It is now accepted that leptostracans belong to the Malacostraca cite book |url=http://www.nhm.org/research/publications/CrustaceaClassification.pdf |title=An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea |author=J. W. Martin & G. E. Davis |year=2001 |pages=132 pp |publisher=Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County |format=PDF] , and the sister group to Leptostraca is Eumalacostraca [cite web |url=http://www.tolweb.org/Malacostraca/6253 |title=Malacostraca |work=Tree of Life Web Project |date=2002-01-01] .

The Order Leptostraca is divided into three families, with ten genera containing a total of around 40 valid described species [cite web |url=http://crustacea.nhm.org/peet/leptostraca/classification.html |title=Classification |publisher=Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County |date=2004 |author=Todd Haney |accessdate=2007-08-08] :

Nebaliopsidae Hessler, 1984
*"Nebaliopsis" Sars, 1887
**"Nebaliopsis typica" Sars, 1887
*"Pseudonebaliopsis" Petryachov, 1996
**"Pseudonebaliopsis atlantica" Petryachov, 1996

Nebaliidae Samoulle, 1819
*"Nebalia" Leach, 1814
**"Nebalia antarctica" Dahl, 1990
**"Nebalia bipes" Fabricius, 1780
**"Nebalia borealis" Dahl, 1985
**"Nebalia brucei" Olesen, 1999
**"Nebalia cannoni" Dahl, 1990
**"Nebalia capensis" Barnard, 1914
**"Nebalia clausi" Dahl, 1985
**"Nebalia falklandensis" Dahl, 1990
**"Nebalia dahli" Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1989
**"Nebalia daytoni" Vetter, 1996
**"Nebalia geoffroyi" Milne-Edwards, 1828
**"Nebalia gerkenae" Haney and Martin, 2000
**"Nebalia herbstii" Leach, 1814
**"Nebalia hessleri" Martin et al., 1996
**"Nebalia ilheoensis" Kensley, 1976
**"Nebalia kocatasi" Kocak, Moreira and Katagan, 2007
**"Nebalia lagartensis" Escobar & Villalobos-Hiriart, 1995
**"Nebalia longicornis" Thomson, 1879
**"Nebalia marerubi" Wägele, 1983
**"Nebalia patagonica" Dahl, 1990
**"Nebalia schizophthalma" Haney, Hessler, and Martin, 2001
**"Nebalia strausi" Risso, 1826
**"Nebalia troncosoi" Moreira, Cacbelos, and Dominguez, 2003
*"Nebaliella" Thiele, 1904
**"Nebaliella antarctica" Thiele, 1904
**"Nebaliella brevicarinata" Kikuchi and Gamô, 1992
**"Nebaliella caboti" Clark, 1932
**"Nebaliella declivatas" Walker-Smith, 1998
**"Nebaliella extrema" Thiele, 1905
*"Dahlella" Hessler, 1984
**"Dahlella caldariensis" Hessler, 1984
*"Sarsinebalia" Dahl, 1985
**"Sarsinebalia cristobi" Moreira, Gestoso, and Troncoso, 2003
**"Sarsinebalia typhlops" (Sars, 1870)
**"Sarsinebalia urgorrii" Moreira, Gestoso, and Troncoso, 2003
*"Speonebalia" Bowman, Yager and Iliffe, 1985
**"Speonebalia cannoni" Bowman, Yager and Iliffe, 1985

Paranebaliidae Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001
*"Levinebalia" Walker-Smith, 2000
**"Levinebalia maria" Walker-Smith, 2000
**"Levinebalia fortunata" (Wakabara, 1976)
*"Paranebalia" Claus, 1880
**"Paranebalia belizensis" Modlin, 1991
**"Paranebalia longipes" (Willemoes-Suhm, 1875)
*"Saronebalia" Haney and Martin, 2004
**"Saronebalia guanensis" Haney and Martin, 2004


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