Polypeptide antibiotics

Polypeptide antibiotics

Polypeptide antibiotics are a class of antibiotics used for eye, ear or bladder infections in addition to aminoglycosides. They are toxic, and are therefore not suitable for systemic administration, but are administered topically on the skin. [ [http://www.olemiss.edu/courses/phcy201/cdh2.htm The University of Mississippi - ANTIBIOTICS] ] They are usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection.

Examples include actinomycin, bacitracin, colistin, polymyxin B.

Their mechanism of action is protein inhibition, but is largely unknown [ [http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/citation/94/5/1549 Paul H. Axelsen: A Chaotic Pore Model of Polypeptide Antibiotic Action ] ]

Adverse effects are kidney and nerve damage when given by injection.

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  • polymyxin — /pol ee mik sin/, n. Pharm. any of various polypeptide antibiotics derived from Bacillus polymyxa. [1945 50; < NL polymyx(a) specific epithet ( < Gk poly POLY + mýxa mucus, slime) + IN2] * * * ▪ drug       any of five polypeptide antibiotics… …   Universalium

  • Actinomycin — D Systematic (IUPAC) name 2 amino N,N bis[(6S,9R,10S,13R,18aS) 6,13 diisopropyl 2,5,9 trimethyl 1,4,7,11,14 pentaoxohexadecahydro 1H pyrrolo[2,1 i] [1,4,7,10,13] oxatetraazacyclohexadecin 10 yl] 4,6 dimethyl 3 oxo 3H …   Wikipedia

  • Neosporin — Combination of Polymyxin B Antibiotic Neomycin Antibiotic Bacitracin Antibiotic Clinical data AHFS/Drugs.com …   Wikipedia

  • actinomycin — A group of peptide antibiotic agents, isolated from several species of Streptomyces (originally Actinomyces), that are active against Gram positive bacteria, fungi, and neoplasms. Actinomycins are chromopeptides, most containing the chromophore… …   Medical dictionary

  • colistin — A mixture of cyclic polypeptide antibiotics from a strain of Bacillus polymyxa; separable into polymyxins. SYN: colimycin. c. sulfate the sulfate salt of an antibacterial substance produced by the growth of a …   Medical dictionary

  • gramicidin — One of a group of polypeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus brevis that are primarily bacteriostatic in action against Gram positive cocci and bacilli. Commercial preparations contain several gramicidins known as g. A, B, C, and D; g. S (for… …   Medical dictionary

  • polymyxin — A mixture of antibiotic substances obtained from cultures of Bacillus polymyxa (B. serosporus), an organism found in water and soils and obtainable as a crystalline hydrochloride; all are polypeptides containing various amino acid s and a… …   Medical dictionary

  • actinomycin — noun Date: 1940 any of various red or yellow red mostly toxic polypeptide antibiotics isolated from soil bacteria (especially Streptomyces antibioticus); specifically one used to inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • gramicidin — noun Etymology: gram positive + i + cide + 1 in Date: 1940 any of several toxic crystalline polypeptide antibiotics produced by a soil bacterium (Bacillus brevis) and used against gram positive bacteria in local infections …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • actinomycin — noun Any of a class of toxic polypeptide antibiotics found in soil bacteria of genus Streptomyces …   Wiktionary

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