Transnationalism is a
social movementgrown out of the heightened interconnectivity between peopleall around the world and the loosening of boundaries between countries.
The term was coined in the early 20th century by writer
Randolph Bourneto describe a new way of thinking about relationships between cultures.
Transnationalism as an
economicprocess involves the global reorganization of the production process, in which various stages of the production of any product can occur in various countries, typically with the aim of minimizing costs. Economic transnationalism, commonly known as Globalizationwas spurred in the latter half of the 20th century by the development of the internet and wireless communication, as well as the reduction in global transportation costs caused by containerization. Multinational corporations could be seen as a form of transnationalism, in that Multinational Corporations seek to minimize costs, and hence maximize profits, by organizing their operations in the most efficient means possible irrespective of political boundaries.
Proponents of transnationalism seek to facilitate the flow of people,
ideas, and goodsbetween regions. They believe that it has increasing relevance with the rapid growth of globalization. They contend that it does not make sense to link specific nation-state boundaries with for instance migratory workforces, globalized corporations, global money flow, global information flow, and global scientific cooperation.
Transnationalism designates a recent shift in migration patterns. Migration used to be a rather directed movement with a point of departure and a point of arrival. It is nowadays increasingly turning into an ongoing movement between two or more social spaces. Facilitated by increased global transportation and telecommunication technologies, more and more
migrants have developed strong transnational ties to more than one homecountry, blurring the congruenceof social spaceand geographicspace. Diasporas, such as the overseas Chinese, are a historical to modern transnationalism. However, unlike people with transnationalist lives, most diasporas have not been voluntary. The field of diaspora politicsdoes consider modern diasporas as having the potential to be transnational political actors.
Transnationalism vs. internationalism
Very careful distinctions are now being made between
internationalor multinationalrelationships - between and among nation-statesor agents thereof - and "transnational" relationships between and among individuals and other entities, regardless of nation-state boundaries. Internationalismrefers to global co-operation between nation states, and points to the affairs between nation-state governments, while transnationalism refers to global co-operation between people, and points to activities, which transcends national boundaries and in which nation-state governments do not play the most important or even a significant role.
Furthermore transnationalism often entails a vision of the obliteration of nation states to make way for a unified
world government. Transnationalism is closely related to cosmopolitanism. If transnationalism describes the individual experience, cosmopolitanism is the philosophy behind it.
Examples of "internationalism" include
United Nations, international treaties, international customs and tariffs regulations. Examples of "transnationalism" include NGOssuch as Greenpeaceor Médecins sans Frontières, global financial activities, global science research, and global environmental concerns.
Global Citizens Movement
List of transnational organizations
Médecins Sans Frontières
Nonviolent Radical Party, Transnational and Transparty
* The NSK State
National Alliance of Latin American and Caribbean Communities
* [http://www.euroalter.com European Alternatives]
* Appadurai, Arjun: "Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization", Delhi, India, Oxford University Press, 1997 - is critical of the construct of the nation-state and seek to propagate a greater use of transnational thought.
* Barkan, Elliott Robert, ed.: "Immigration, Incorporation and Transnationalism", Somerset, New Jersey, USA, Transaction Publishers, 2003.
* Bourne, Randolph: [http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/rbannis1/AIH19th/Bourne.html "Trans-National America"] in "
The Atlantic Monthly", #118 (July 1916), pp. 86-97, Boston, The Atlantic Monthly Group, 1916.
*cite book | last = Cante | first = Richard C. | title = Gay Men and the Forms of Contemporary US Culture | publisher = Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0 7546 7230 1. Chapter 6: The World of All-Male Pornography | month = March | year = 2008 | location = London
*Dolby, Nadine and Cornbleth, Catherine. (2001) "Social identities in transnational times." "Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education", Vol. 22 Issue 3, p293-296.
* Guarnizo, Luis Eduardo & Michael Peter Smith, eds., "Transnationalism from Below", New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, Transaction Publishers, 1997.
* Joerges, Christian; Inger-Johanne Sand & Gunther Teubner, eds.: "Transnational governance and constitutionalism", Oxford, United Kingdom, Hart Publishing, 2004.
* Keohane, Robert O. & Joseph S. Nye, eds. "Transnational relations and world politics", Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Harvard University Press, 1972 - locus classicus for the distinction in international relations.
* McKeown, Adam: "Chinese Migrant Networks and Cultural Change: Peru, Chicago, and Hawaii 1900-1936", Chicago, Illinois, USA, The University of Chicago Press, 2001 - offered a transnational look at Chinese immigrants and social links in the nineteenth century.
* Pries, Ludger, ed.: "Migration and Transnational Social Spaces", Aldershot, United Kingdom, Ashgate, 1999.
* Robinson, William I.: "Beyond Nation-State Paradigms: Globalization, Sociology, and the Challenge of Transnational Studies" in "Sociological Forum", Vol. 13, No 4, pp. 561-594, New York City, USA, 1998.
* Sassen, Saskia: "Cities in a World Economy", Thousand Oaks, California, USA, Pine Forge Press, 2006 - more detailed analysis of the transnational phenomenon, with elaborate examples, is contained in the writings of
* Tarrow, Sidney: "The new transnational activism", New York City, USA, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
* See the trilingual (English, Chinese, French) "Transtext(e)sTranscultures: Journal of Global Cultural Studies" http://www.transtexts.net publication of the Institute for Transtextual and Transculural Studies, University of Lyon, France.
* See the University of the Arts London "Research Centre for Transnational Art, Identity & Nation" http://www.transnational.org.uk
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