Protocol II

Protocol II

Protocol II: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.As of 14 January 2007 it had been ratified by 163 countries, with the United States, Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan and Iraq being notable exceptions. However, the United States, Iran and Pakistan signed it on 12 December 1977 with the intention of ratifying it.

According to an appeal by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1997, a number of the articles contained in both protocols are recognized as rules of customary law valid for all states, whether or not they have ratified them. []


Protocol II is an amendment to the Geneva Conventions.

Adopted on June 8, 1977 by the "Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts" presided over by Pierre Graber of Switzerland. The protocol entered into force on December 7, 1979 (six months after its adoption by the conference) for the original signatories, and otherwise does so six months after a party's ratification.

ee also

* Geneva Conventions
* First Geneva Convention of 1864 on the treatment of battlefield casualties
* Second Geneva Convention of 1906 on the treatment of casualties in war at sea
* Third Geneva Convention of 1929 on the treatment of prisoners of war
* Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 on the treatment of civilians during wartime
* Protocol I, 1977 Geneva Convention amendment about the protection of victims in international conflicts
* Protocol III, 2005 Geneva Convention amendment about the adoption of the Red Crystal emblem

External links

* [ Committee of the Red Cross: Full text of Protocol II with commentaries]
* [ List of countries that have ratified Protocol II]
* [ List of countries that have signed but not yet ratified Protocol II]
* [ International Review of the Red Cross, 1997 - No. 320] Special issue: 20th anniversary of the 1977 Additional Protocols
* [ President Reagan's message to the Senate on Protocols I & II]

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  • protocol — pro‧to‧col [ˈprəʊtəkɒl ǁ ˈproʊtəkɒːl, kɑːl] noun 1. [countable] COMPUTING an established method for connecting computers so that they can exchange information: • You have to use a different protocol with this new modem. • HTTP is an Internet… …   Financial and business terms

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  • protocol — PROTOCÓL, protocoale, s.n. 1. Act, document în care sunt consemnate rezoluţiile unei adunări, ale unor dezbateri, ale unei conferinţe internaţionale; document diplomatic cu valoarea unui acord internaţional, care cuprinde hotărârile luate la o… …   Dicționar Român

  • Protocol — • The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries; also, the compact register in which notaries register these acts; finally, the first draft of these acts Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Protocol     Proto …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • protocol — pro·to·col / prō tə ˌkȯl/ n 1: an original draft, minute, or record of a document or transaction 2 a: a preliminary memorandum often formulated and signed by diplomatic negotiators as a basis for a final convention or treaty b: the records or… …   Law dictionary

  • protocol — [prōt′ə kôl΄, prōt′ōkäl΄, prōt′ōkōl΄] n. [Early ModE prothocoll < MFr prothocole < ML protocollum < LGr prōtokollon, first leaf glued to a manuscript (describing the contents) < Gr prōto , PROTO + kolla, glue] 1. an original draft or… …   English World dictionary

  • Protocol — Pro to*col, v. t. To make a protocol of. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Protocol — Pro to*col, n. [F. protocole, LL. protocollum, fr. Gr. ? the first leaf glued to the rolls of papyrus and the notarial documents, on which the date was written; prw^tos the first (see {Proto }) + ? glue.] 1. The original copy of any writing, as… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Protocol — Pro to*col, v. i. To make or write protocols, or first draughts; to issue protocols. Carlyle. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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