- Protocol II
Protocol II: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of
12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.As of 14 January 2007it had been ratified by 163 countries, with the United States, Israel, Iran, Pakistanand Afghanistanand Iraqbeing notable exceptions. However, the United States, Iran and Pakistan signed it on 12 December 1977with the intention of ratifying it.
According to an appeal by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1997, a number of the articles contained in both protocols are recognized as rules of customary law valid for all states, whether or not they have ratified them. [http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JNUX]
Protocol II is an amendment to the
June 8, 1977by the "Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Lawapplicable in Armed Conflicts" presided over by Pierre Graberof Switzerland. The protocol entered into force on December 7, 1979(six months after its adoption by the conference) for the original signatories, and otherwise does so six months after a party's ratification.
First Geneva Conventionof 1864 on the treatment of battlefield casualties
Second Geneva Conventionof 1906 on the treatment of casualties in war at sea
Third Geneva Conventionof 1929 on the treatment of prisoners of war
Fourth Geneva Conventionof 1949 on the treatment of civilians during wartime
Protocol I, 1977 Geneva Convention amendment about the protection of victims in international conflicts
Protocol III, 2005 Geneva Convention amendment about the adoption of the Red Crystalemblem
* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/d67c3971bcff1c10c125641e0052b545 Committee of the Red Cross: Full text of Protocol II with commentaries]
* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebSign?ReadForm&id=475&ps=P List of countries that have ratified Protocol II]
* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebSign?ReadForm&id=475&ps=S List of countries that have signed but not yet ratified Protocol II]
* [http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/section_review_1997_320?OpenDocument International Review of the Red Cross, 1997 - No. 320] Special issue: 20th anniversary of the 1977 Additional Protocols
* [http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1987/012987b.htm President Reagan's message to the Senate on Protocols I & II]
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