Lion Monument

Lion Monument

The Lion Monument (German: "Löwendenkmal"), or the Lion of Lucerne, is a sculpture in Lucerne, Switzerland, designed by Bertel Thorvaldsen. It commemorates the Swiss Guards who were massacred in 1792 during the French Revolution, when revolutionaries stormed the Tuileries Palace in Paris, France. The American writer Mark Twain (1835–1910) praised the sculpture of a mortally-wounded lion as "the most mournful and moving piece of stone in the world."cite web
url= http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/lit/marktwain/ATrampAbroad/chap26.html
title= Chapter XXVI: The Nest of the Cuckoo-Clock
author= Mark Twain | authorlink= Mark Twain | year= 1880 | work= A Tramp Abroad
accessdate= 2008-08-08
]

quotation
The Lion lies in his lair in the perpendicular face of a low cliff — for he is carved from the living rock of the cliff. His size is colossal, his attitude is noble. How head is bowed, the broken spear is sticking in his shoulder, his protecting paw rests upon the lilies of France. Vines hang down the cliff and wave in the wind, and a clear stream trickles from above and empties into a pond at the base, and in the smooth surface of the pond the lion is mirrored, among the water-lilies. Around about are green trees and grass. The place is a sheltered, reposeful woodland nook, remote from noise and stir and confusion — and all this is fitting, for lions do die in such places, and not on granite pedestals in public squares fenced with fancy iron railings. The Lion of Lucerne would be impressive anywhere, but nowhere so impressive as where he is.
Mark Twain|A Tramp Abroad|1880

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Background

From the early 17th century, a regiment of Swiss mercenaries had served as part of the Royal Household of France. On 6 October 1789, King Louis XVI had been forced to move with his family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. In June 1791 he tried to flee abroad. In the 1792 10th of August Insurrection, revolutionaries stormed the palace. Fighting broke out spontaneously after the Royal Family had been escorted from the Tuileries to take refuge with the Legislative Assembly. The Swiss ran low on ammunition and were overwhelmed by superior numbers. A note written by the King has survived, ordering the Swiss to retire and return to their barracks, but this was only acted on after their position had become untenable.

Of the Swiss Guards defending the Tuileries, more than six hundred were killed during the fighting or massacred after surrender. An estimated two hundred more died in prison of their wounds or were killed during the September Massacres that followed. Apart from about a hundred Swiss who escaped from the Tuileries, the only survivors of the regiment were a 300 strong detachment which had been sent to Normandy a few days before August 10. The Swiss officers were mostly amongst those massacred, although Major Karl Josef von Bachmann — in command at the Tuileries — was formally tried and guillotined in September, still wearing his red uniform coat. However two surviving Swiss officers went on to reach senior rank under Napoleon.

Memorial

The initiative to create the monument was taken by Karl Pfyffer von Altishofen, an officer of the Guards who had been on leave in Lucerne at that time of the fight. He began collecting money in 1818. The monument was designed by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, and finally hewn in 1820–21 by Lukas Ahorn, in a former sandstone quarry near Lucerne.

The monument is dedicated "Helvetiorum Fidei ac Virtuti" ("To the loyalty and bravery of the Swiss"). The dying lion is portrayed impaled by a spear, covering a shield bearing the fleur-de-lis of the French monarchy; beside him is another shield bearing the coat of arms of Switzerland.The inscription below the sculpture lists the names of the officers, and approximate numbers of the soldiers who died (DCCLX = 760), and survived (CCCL = 350). [ cite web
url= http://www.gletschergarten.ch/en/info/2_loewe/1.html
title= Lion Monument Inscriptions
publisher= Glacier Garden, Lucerne
accessdate= 2008-08-08
]

The pose of the lion was copied in 1894 by Thomas M. Brady (1849–1907) [cite web
url= http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7872402
title= Thomas M. Brady, Sr
date= 2003-09-16 |work= | publisher= Find A Grave
accessdate= 2008-08-09
] for his "Lion of Atlanta" in the Oakland Cemetery in Atlanta, Georgia. Science-fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein (1907–1988) alluded to the sculpture in his novels "Double Star" and "Starship Troopers".

Notes

External links

* [http://www.gletschergarten.ch/en/loewe.html Lion Monument] , Glacier Garden, Lucerne. Retrieved on 2008-08-08.
* [http://travelguide.all-about-switzerland.info/lucerne-lion-monument-pictures-history.html Lion Monument, Lucerne] , "All About Switzerland" travelguide. Retrieved on 2008-08-08.


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