Aratta

Aratta

Aratta is a land that appears in Sumerian myths surrounding Enmerkar and Lugalbanda, two early and possibly mythical kings of Uruk also mentioned on the Sumerian king list.

Role in Sumerian literature

Aratta is described as follows in Sumerian literature:
*It is a fabulously wealthy place full of gold, silver, lapis lazuli and other precious materials, as well as the artisans to craft them. [Cohen (1973) p. 55 notes: "Aratta became a epithet for "abundance" and "glory"."]
*It is remote and difficult to reach.
*It is home to the goddess Inana, who transfers her allegiance from Aratta to Uruk.
*It is conquered by Enmerkar of Uruk.

Mentions in Sumerian literature

"Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta" [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.2.3#] - The goddess Inana resides in Aratta, but Enmerkar of Uruk pleases her more than the lord of Aratta, who is not named in this epic. Emmerkar wants Aratta to submit to Uruk, bring stones down from the mountain, craft gold, silver and lapis lazuli, and send them, along with "kugmea" ore to Uruk to build a temple. Inana bids him send a messenger to Aratta, who ascends and descends the "Zubi" mountains, and crosses Susa, Anshan, and "five, six, seven" mountains before approaching Aratta. Aratta in turn wants grain in exchange. However Inana transfers her allegiance to Uruk, and the grain gains the favor of Aratta's people for Uruk, so the lord of Aratta challenges Enmerkar to send a champion to fight his champion. Then the god Ishkur makes Aratta's crops grow.

"Enmerkar and En-suhgir-ana" [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.2.4#] - The lord of Aratta, who is here named "En-suhgir-ana" (or "Ensuhkeshdanna"), challenges Enmerkar of Uruk to a contest of champions over the goddess Inana, and his champion is defeated. But a sorcerer offers to make Uruk submit, and an advisor says he will make Uruk transport its own goods to Aratta by flotilla. The sorcerer then bewitches Uruk's animals, but a wise woman outwits him, and En-suhgir-ana admits defeat, and the loss of the goddess Inana to Enmerkar.

"Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave" [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.2.1#] - is a tale of Lugalbanda, who will become Enmerkar's successor. Enmerkar's army travels through mountainous territory to wage war against rebellious Aratta. Lugalbanda falls ill and is left in a cave, but he prays to the various gods, recovers, and must find his way out of the mountains.

"Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird" [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.2.2#] - Lugalbanda befriends the "Anzud" bird, and asks it to help him find his army again. When Enmerkar's army is faced with setback, Lugalbanda volunteers to return to Uruk to ask the goddess Inana's aid. He crosses through the mountains, into the flat land, from the edge to the top of Anshan and then to Uruk, where Inana helps him. She advises Enmerkar to carry off Aratta's "worked metal and metalsmiths and worked stone and stonemasons" and all the "moulds of Aratta will be his". Then the city is described as having battlements made of green lapis lazuli and bricks made of "tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows".

Other mentions in Sumerian literature

*Praise Poem of Shulgi (Shulgi Y) [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.2.4.2.25&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t24225.p4#t24225.p4] : "I filled it with treasures like those of holy Aratta."

*Shulgi and Ninlil's barge [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.2.4.2.18&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t24218.p2#t24218.p2] : "Aratta, full-laden with treasures"

*Proverbs [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.6.2.2&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t622.p7#t622.p7] , [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.6.1.09&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t6109.p3#t6109.p3] , [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.6.1.10&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t6110.p3#t6110.p3] : "When the authorities are wise, and the poor are loyal, it is the effect of the blessing of Aratta."

*Unprovenanced Proverbs [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.6.2.5&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t625.p59#t625.p59] : "When the authorities are wise, and the poor are passed by, it is the effect of the blessing of Aratta."

*Hymn to Hendursanga (Hendursanga A) [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.4.06.1&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t4061.p8#t4061.p8] : "So that Aratta will be overwhelmed (?), Lugalbanda stands by at your (Hendursanga's) behest."

*Hymn to Nisaba (Nisaba A) [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.4.16.1&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t4161.p5#t4161.p5] : "In Aratta he (Enki?) has placed E-zagin (the lapis lazuli temple) at her (Nisaba's) disposal."

*The building of Ninngirsu's temple [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.2.1.7&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t217.p85#t217.p85] : "pure like Kesh and Aratta"

*"Tigi" to Suen (Nanna I) [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.4.13.09&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t41309.p4#t41309.p4] : "the shrine of my heart which I (Nanna) have founded in joy like Aratta"

*Inana and Ibeh [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.3.2&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t132.p9#t132.p9] : "the inaccessible mountain range Aratta"

*Gilgamesh and Huwawa (Version B) [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.1.5.1&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t18151.p5#t18151.p5] : "they know the way even to Aratta"

*Temple Hymns [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.4.80.1&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t4801.p18#t4801.p18] : Aratta is "respected"

*The Kesh Temple Hymn [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.4.80.2&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t4802.p2#t4802.p2] : Aratta is"important"

*Lament for Ur [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.2.2.2&display=Crit&charenc=gcirc&lineid=t222.p66#t222.p66] : Aratta is "weighty (counsel)"

Location hypotheses

Although Aratta is known only from myth,Cohen (1973) p. 61. Cohen states: "it is indeed strange that the name of such an important trade center should as yet remain unknown to us from any economic, administrative or other non-literary texts from the Ur III or Old Babylonian period".] some Assyriologists and archaeologists have speculated on possible locations where Aratta could have been, using criteria from the myths: [Kramer (1963), Gordon (1967) and Cohen (1973)] [Herrmann (1968), Hansman (1972, 1978) and Majidzadeh (1976)]

# Land travelers must pass through Susa and the mountainous Anshan region to reach it.
# It is a source of, or has access to valuable gems and minerals, in particular lapis lazuli, that are crafted on site.
# It is accessible to Uruk by watercourse, yet remote from Uruk.
# It is close enough to march a 27th century BC Sumerian army there.

In 1963, Samuel Noah Kramer thought that a "Mount Hurum" in a Lugalbanda myth (which he titled "Lugalbanda on Mount Hurrum" at the time) might have referred to the Hurrians, and hence speculated Aratta to be near Lake Urmia. [Kramer (1963) p. 275.] However, "Mount Hurum", "hur-ru-um kur-ra-ka", in what is now called "Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave", [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.2.1#] is today read "mountain cave", [ see e.g. "Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave", ETCSL (2006) [http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=c.1.8.2.1&display=Crit&charenc=&lineid=c1821.A.102#c1821.A.102 line 102, etc.] ;Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie (1990) vol. 7, [http://books.google.com/books?id=UqbsSRgBRloC&printsec=frontcover&dq=hur-ru-um&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA121,M1 p. 121] ;Black (1998) [http://books.google.com/books?id=6Mn5g1JaZ-4C&pg=PA136&dq=hur-ru-um&sig=U16WcEB9N_yPocQzK4HQ7CZvLNI#PPA136,M1 p. 136] ;Vanstiphout (2003) [http://books.google.com/books?id=STV52CawmiAC&pg=PA110&dq=hur-ru-um&sig=TuWvdHK1SG45knDMhh-3D1X1SgU#PPA110,M1 p.110-111, etc.] ] and Kramer subsequently introduced the title "Lugalbanda, the Wandering Hero" for this story. [Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie (1990) vol. 7, [http://books.google.com/books?id=UqbsSRgBRloC&printsec=frontcover&dq=hur-ru-um&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA121,M1 p. 121] ]

Other speculations referred to the early gem trade route, the "Great Khorasan Road" from the Himalayan Mountains [The only source of lapis lazuli for the ancient world was Badakhshan, Afghanistan (see Clark (1986) [http://books.google.com/books?id=dUrsDklHqLIC&pg=PA68&dq=lapis+lazuli&sig=vbbbSruHYTjIDXKedfQn3j30Tzk#PPA67,M1 p. 67] ).] to Mesopotamia, which ran through northern Iran. [Gordon (1967) p. 72, note 9. The Sanandaj area.] [Herrmann (1968) p. 54. South or southeast of the Caspian Sea (cited in Majidzadeh (1976)).] [Cohen (1973) p. 60. The Hamadan area.] Anshan, which had not yet been located then, was assumed to be in the central Zagros mountain range. [e.g. Gordon (1967) p. 72 note 9. Kermanshah; Mallowan (1969) p. 256. Bakhtiari territory (cited in Mallowan (1985) p. 401, note 1).] However, when Anshan [In contrast to Aratta, Anshan is well documented beyond literary texts (c.f. Hansman (1985) [http://books.google.com/books?id=BBbyr932QdYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=anshan+malyan&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA25,M1 pp. 25-35] ).] was identified as Tall-i Malyan in 1973, [Reiner, Erica (1973) "The Location of Anšan", "Revue d'Assyriologie" 67, pp. 57-62 (cited in Majidzadeh (1976), Hansman (1985)).] it was found to be 600 km south-east of Uruk, far removed from any northerly routes or watercourses from Uruk, and posing the logistical improbability of getting a 27th century BC Sumerian army through 550 km of Elamite territory to wage war with Aratta. [Cohen (1973) p. 59. Cohen also notes that the farthest east that any Assyrian king ever went was Hamadan.] Nevertheless, there have been speculations referring to eastern Iran as well. [Hansman, John F. (1972, 1978). Shahr-i Sokhta.] [Majidzadeh (1976) Shahdad; (2004) Jiroft.] Dr. Yousef Majidzadeh believes the Jiroft Civilization could be Aratta.

By 1973, archaeologists were noting that there was no archaeological record of Aratta's existence outside of myth, and in 1978 Hansman cautions against over-speculation. [Hansman (1978): "In the case of Aratta, where no inscriptions or texts are currently available to favor any one site, the mechanics of identification depend largely on inductive inquiry. At best such methods provide indications from which a location may be postulated as being reasonable or possible. But one cannot assume too much, for then the hypothesis becomes subjective rather than objective."]

Writers in other fields have continued to hypothesize Aratta locations. A "possible reflex" has been suggested in Sanskrit "Āraṭṭa" or "Arāṭṭa" mentioned in the Mahabharata and other texts; [ Michael Witzel ( [http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/%7Ewitzel/Lingsit.pdf "Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India" 1999, p. 8] , [http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/%7Ewitzel/EJVS-7-3.pdf "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts" "EJVS" 2001, p.18-19] )] Alternatively, the name is compared with the toponym Ararat or Urartu. [David Rohl "
] Other authors take the story as purely mythical. [Piotr Steinkeller (1999), Herman L. J. Vanstiphout (2003), Daniel T. Potts (2004)]

Bibliography

*cite book
last = Black
first = Jeremy
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Reading Sumerian Poetry
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 1998
location =
pages = 136
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=6Mn5g1JaZ-4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=hur-ru-um&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA136,M1
id =
isbn = 0801433398

*cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors = Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Ebeling, J., Flückiger-Hawker, E., Robson, E., Taylor, J., and Zólyomi, G.
title = The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
work =
publisher = Oxford
date = 1998–2006
url = http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/
format =
accessdate = 2008-03-15

*cite paper
first = Sol
last = Cohen
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
version =
publisher = Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania
date = 1973
pages = 55-61
url = http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?index=0&sid=3&srchmode=1&vinst=PROD&fmt=6&startpage=-1&clientid=3751&vname=PQD&did=760326141&scaling=FULL&ts=1205694637&vtype=PQD&rqt=309&TS=1205694643&clientId=3751
format =
id =
accessdate = 2008-03-15

*cite journal
last = Gordon
first = Edmund I.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = The Meaning of the Ideogram dKASKAL.KUR = "Underground Water-Course" and its Significance for Bronze Age Historical Geography
journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
volume = 21
issue =
pages = 72, note 9
publisher =
location =
date = 1967
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0256%281967%2921%3C70%3ATMOTI%3D%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1
id =
accessdate = 2005-03-15

*cite journal
last = Hansman
first = John F.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = The Question of Aratta
journal = Journal of Near Eastern Studies
volume = 37
issue =
pages = 331–336
publisher =
location =
date = 1978
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2968%28197810%2937%3A4%3C331%3ATQOA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
id =
accessdate = 2005-03-15
doi = 10.1086/372671

*cite encyclopedia
last = Hansman
first = John F.
title = Anshan in the Elamite and Archaemenian Periods
encyclopedia = The Cambridge History of Iran
volume = 2
pages = 25-35
publisher = Cambridge University Press
date = 1985
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=BBbyr932QdYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=anshan+malyan&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA25,M1
id =
accessdate = 2005-03-15
isbn = 0521200911

*cite journal
last = Hansman
first = John F.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Elamites, Achaemenians and Anshan
journal = Iran
volume = 10
issue =
pages = 118, footnote 97
publisher =
location =
date = 1972
url =
id =
accessdate =
note = cited in Majidzadeh (1976) and Hansman (1978)

*cite journal
last = Herrmann
first = Georgina
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Lapis Lazuli: The Early Phase of its Trade
journal = Iraq
volume = 30
issue =
pages = 36, 54
publisher =
location =
date = 1968
url =
id =
accessdate =
note = cited in Cohen (1973), Majidzadeh (1976)

*cite book
last = Kramer
first = Samuel Noah
authorlink = Samuel Noah Kramer
coauthors =
title = Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta: A Sumerian Epic Tale of Iraq and Iran
publisher = University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
date = 1952
location =
pages =
url =
id =
isbn =

*cite book
last = Kramer
first = Samuel Noah
authorlink = Samuel Noah Kramer
coauthors =
title = The Sumerians
publisher = University of Chicago Press
date = 1963
location =
pages = 275
url =
id =
isbn = 0226452387

*cite journal
last = Majidzadeh
first = Yousef
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = The Land of Aratta
journal = Journal of Near Eastern Studies
volume = 35
issue =
pages = 105–114
publisher =
location =
date = 1976
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2968%28197604%2935%3A2%3C105%3ATLOA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
id =
accessdate = 2005-03-15
doi = 10.1086/372470

*cite book
last = Majidzadeh
first = Yousef
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Jiroft: the Earliest Oriental Civilization
publisher =
date = 2004
location =
pages =
url =
id =
isbn =

*cite encyclopedia
last = Mallowan
first = Max
authorlink = Max Mallowan
title = Cyrus the Great
encyclopedia = The Cambridge History of Iran
volume = 2
pages =
publisher =
date = 1985
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=wHi05HiRn1oC&pg=PA2&dq=mountains+anshan&sig=m_tlGDIdARBN7DuJesfT81WU5Hk#PPA410,M1
id =
accessdate = 2005-03-15
isbn = 0521200911

*cite journal
last = Mallowan
first = Max
authorlink = Max Mallowan
coauthors =
title = Elamite Problems
journal = Proceedings of the British Academy
volume = LV
issue =
pages = 256
publisher =
location = London
date = 1969
url =
id =
accessdate =
note = cited in Mallowan (1985) p. 401, note 1

*cite book
last = Movsisyan
first = Artak
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Aratta: Land of the Sacred Law
publisher =
date = 2001
location = Yerevan
pages =
url =
id =
isbn =

*cite journal
last = Potts
first = Daniel T.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Exit Aratta: Southeastern Iran and the Land of Marhashi
journal = Name-ye Iran-e Bastan
volume = 4/1
issue =
pages = 1–11
publisher =
location =
date = 2004
url =
id =
accessdate =
note =

*cite journal
last = Reiner
first = Erica
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = The Location of Anšan
journal = Revue d'Assyriologie
volume = 67
issue =
pages = 57–62
publisher =
location =
date = 1973
url =
id =
accessdate =
note = cited in Majidzadeh (1976), Hansman (1985)

*cite book
last = Vanstiphout
first = Herman L. J
authorlink =
coauthors = Jerrold S. Cooper, contributor
title = Epics of Sumerian Kings: The Matter of Aratta
publisher = Society of Biblical Literature
date = 2003
location =
pages = 110-111, etc.
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=6yqtZcdeL70C&printsec=frontcover&dq=hur-ru-um&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA110,M1
id =
isbn = 1589830830

*cite encyclopedia
last =
first =
title = Lugalbanda
encyclopedia = Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie
volume = 7
pages = 121
publisher = Walter de Gruyter
date = 1990
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=UqbsSRgBRloC&printsec=frontcover&dq=hur-ru-um&source=gbs_summary_r#PPA121,M1
id =
accessdate = 2008-03-15
isbn = 3110104377

Footnotes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Aratta — (akkadisch für Erhabenes Bergland) ist der Name eines Landes in der sumerischen Mythologie. Es ist umstritten, ob ein Stadtstaat oder ein Königreich dieses Namens im Nahen Osten tatsächlich existierte und wo es gelegen haben könnte.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Aratta — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Aratta fue un antiguo estado situado en algún lugar de Oriente Medio o Asia meridional, cuyos orígenes pueden situarse aproximadamente entre 2500 2100 a. C. Es mencionado en las leyendas sumerias más… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Aratta — (Пилипец,Украина) Категория отеля: Адрес: Pylypets, Пилипец, 90011, Украина …   Каталог отелей

  • Aratta — Pays mentionné dans des mythes sumériens, mettant en scène les rois d Uruk, Enmerkar et Lugalbanda. Elle est présentée comme une riche cité du Plateau iranien, aux ressources abondantes, avec laquelle les rois d Uruk sont en conflit, visiblement… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • āraṭṭa — आरट्ट …   Indonesian dictionary

  • āraṭṭa-ja — आरट्टज …   Indonesian dictionary

  • Enmerkar Et Le Seigneur D'Aratta — est un récit légendaire sumérien, basé peut être sur des faits réels remontant à la première moitié du IIIe millénaire avant J. C. Il fait partie d un cycle de récits ayant pour cadre les conflits qui opposent le roi Enmerkar d Uruk au roi de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Enmerkar et le seigneur d'Aratta — est un récit légendaire sumérien, basé peut être sur des faits réels remontant à la première moitié du IIIe millénaire avant J. C. Il fait partie d un cycle de récits ayant pour cadre les conflits qui opposent le roi Enmerkar d Uruk au roi de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Enmerkar et le seigneur d'aratta — est un récit légendaire sumérien, basé peut être sur des faits réels remontant à la première moitié du IIIe millénaire avant J. C. Il fait partie d un cycle de récits ayant pour cadre les conflits qui opposent le roi Enmerkar d Uruk au roi de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Enmerkar et le seigneur d’Aratta — Enmerkar et le seigneur d Aratta Enmerkar et le seigneur d Aratta est un récit légendaire sumérien, basé peut être sur des faits réels remontant à la première moitié du IIIe millénaire avant J. C. Il fait partie d un cycle de récits ayant pour… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”