Cessna 177

Cessna 177

Infobox Aircraft
name=Model 177 Cardinal


caption=
type=Light utility aircraft
manufacturer=Cessna Aircraft Company
designer=
first flight=1967
introduced=1968
primary user=
more users=
produced=1968-1978
number built=4,295
unit cost=USD$27,250 (new aircraft in 1976)
developed from=
variants with their own articles=
The Cessna 177 Cardinal is a light, high-wing general aviation aircraft that was intended to replace Cessna's 172 Skyhawk. First announced in 1967, it was produced from 1968 to 1978.Plane and Pilot: "1978 Aircraft Directory", page 25. Werner & Werner Corp Publishing, 1978. ISBN 0-918312-00-0] Christy, Joe: "The Complete Guide to the Single-Engine Cessnas - 3rd Edition", pages 54-61. TAB Books, 1979. ISBN 0-8306-2268-3]

Development

The Cessna 177 was designed in the mid-1960s when the engineers at Cessna were asked to create a "futuristic 1970s successor to the Cessna 172". The resulting aircraft featured newer technology such as a cantilever wing with a laminar flow airfoil.

The 177 is the only production high-wing single-engined Cessna since the Cessna 190 & 195 series to have both fixed landing gear and a cantilever wing without strut bracing.

Cessna 177

The 1968 model 177 was introduced with a 150 hp (112 kW) engine. One of the design goals of this 172 replacement was to allow the pilot an unobstructed view when making a turn. In the 172 the pilot sits under the wing and when the wing is lowered to begin a turn that wing blocks the pilot's view of where the turn will lead to. The engineers resolved this problem by placing the pilot forward of the wing's leading edge, but that led to a too-far-forward center of gravity.

This problem was partially counteracted by the decision to use the significantly lighter Lycoming 0-320 four-cylinder engine in place of the six-cylinder O-300 Continental used on the 172. The forward CG situation still existed even with the lighter engine, so a stabilator was chosen, to provide sufficient elevator control authority at low airspeeds.

The 177 design was intended to be a replacement for the 172, which was to be discontinued upon introduction of the new aircraft. The new design was originally to be called the 172J (the last 172 in production at that time was the 172H, and "I" was usually not used as a designation suffix since it could cause confusion). However, as the time came to make the transition, there was considerable resistance to the replacement of the 172 from the company's Marketing Division.

Performance and Handling Problems

The stabilator of the 177 was not fully counterbalanced (only 75% counterweighted, to save about 4 pounds of weight). This caused a phenomenon called pilot-induced oscillation (PIO), as the pilot tried to correct a nose-high or nose-low attitude with out-of-sync elevator inputs which exacerbated the undesirable attitude.

The NACA 65A015 airfoil used on the 177 was chosen for its laminar-flow characteristics. This airfoil has a much higher induced drag at low airspeeds than the NACA 2412 airfoil used on the 172, so in order to obtain a positive rate of climb the pilot had to use a higher climb airspeed than was common in the 172.Fact|date=December 2007

Soon after delivery to customers was commenced reported incidents of Pilot-induced oscillation became so alarming that the factory initiated a priority program to eliminate the problem. The solution, which was provided to all aircraft already delivered at no cost, was named the "Cardinal Rule".Fact|date=December 2007

This Airworthiness Directive consisted of modifying the stabilator to install leading-edge slats (to eliminate stabilator stall) and installing full counterbalance (11 pounds versus the original 7 pounds) on the stabilator to eliminate the PIO problem. [ cite web|url = http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library%5CrgAD.nsf/0/FCFFDE88D4EE445C86256A1C007495C7?OpenDocument|title =Airworthiness Directive 68-07-09 Longitudinal Control System|accessdate = 2007-12-15|last = Federal Aviation Administration|authorlink = |year = 11/16/1968]

The gearing ratio on the anti-servo tab (at the trailing edge of the stabilator) was also modified.Fact|date=December 2007

Initial 177 Sales

Though the 177 initially sold well as factory-authorized dealers filled their previously-agreed upon marketing commitments, overall the sales did not meet company expectations.Fact|date=December 2007

Due to the reluctance on the part of the factory's Marketing Division, Cessna decided to continue production of the 172 for at least one more year, so that the relative market strengths of both aircraft could be better evaluated.Fact|date=December 2007

This decision to continue to produce the Cessna 172 meant that the 172 production line had to be reactivated and a last-minute decision about engines was needed. The long-term contract for Continental O-300 engines had been canceled and a large contract (5000 units) had been placed with Lycoming for O-320 engines. Fortunately, the O-320 could be installed in the 172 with few problems, so the 1968 Model 172I was offered with an increase of 5 horsepower (4 kW), alongside the new aircraft.Fact|date=December 2007

The new design was named the Cessna 177 and given the name "Cardinal" (when it was equipped with the optional-equipment package) at the last minute.

The 177, with its 150 hp (112 kW) powerplant, was considered "underpowered", even though it had more power than the 145 hp (108 kW) Cessna 172. The 177 did not climb as quickly as the 172I at the same indicated airspeed and its cruise speed was less than the 172I even with its apparently sleeker silhouette and the same 150 hp engine installed.

Cessna 177A

Recognizing that the aircraft was underpowered, Cessna introduced the 177A in 1969. The revision featured a 180 hp (135 kW) version of the same four-cylinder Lycoming used in the 177, moving the design's price and role somewhere between that of the 172 and 182. The additional power improved cruise speed by 11 knots (20 km/h).cite web |url=http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=143 |title=Cessna 177 Cardinal |work= [http://airliners.net Airliners.net] |accessdate=2006-10-30] The 177A also included the fiberglass, downward-shaped, conical wing tips that had been introduced on the 172 of the same year.

Cessna 177B

1970 saw the introduction of the 177B, which had a new wing airfoil, a constant-speed propeller, and other minor improvements. The 177B weighed 145 lb (66 kg) more empty than the earlier 177, with maximum takeoff weight increased from 2,350 lb (1,067 kg) to 2,500 lb (1,135 kg). Despite these upgrades, the 177B was outsold by the 172, the airplane it was intended to replace.Fact|date=December 2007

The wing airfoil was obtained by fairing the front half of the NACA 2415 shape onto the previous NACA 65A015 airfoil. This eliminated the supposed "low-drag bucket" of the 65-series airfoil (which had not been seen in actual use), but gave a lower drag at high angles of attack (i.e. during the climb), and softened the break at the stall.Fact|date=December 2007

Cessna 177RG

The final aircraft in the 177 line was the retractable-gear 177RG, which Cessna began producing in 1971 as a direct competitor to the Piper PA-28-200R Cherokee Arrow and Beechcraft Sierra. The RG had a 200 hp (150 kW) engine to offset the 300 lb (136 kg) increase in maximum weight, much of which was from the electrically-powered hydraulic gear mechanism.

The additional power and cleaner lines of the 177RG resulted in a cruise speed of 146 knots (270 km/h), 22 knots (41 km/h) faster than the 177B. 1,543 177RG's were delivered including those built in France by Reims.

Overall Model Sales

The 177 cost more than the 172. Due to the poor reputation of the early models, the Cardinal was consistently outsold by the Skyhawk despite the improvements made to the 177s built after 1971.Fact|date=December 2007

While not a commercial failure, the 177 was not a success by Cessna's standards. Both the 177B and 177RG ceased production in 1978, just ten years after the first 177 was introduced.Fact|date=December 2007

Present day

Today both the 177 and 177RG are considered desirable aircraft to own, mostly because of the large doors which offer easy entry, the aircraft's reasonable performance for the power, active owners groups and the aircraft's attractive looks.

The 177 offers much better upwards visibility than a 172 because of its steeply raked windshield and more aft-mounted wing. The absence of an obstructing wing support strut makes the aircraft an excellent platform for aerial photography.

Aircraft type clubs

The Cessna 177 and 177RG family of aircraft are supported by several active aircraft type clubs, including the Cardinal Flyers Online and the Cessna Pilots Association.

The Cessna 177 in popular culture

A Cessna 177 is prominently featured throughout the 1968 Russ Meyer movie "Vixen!". In the film the early-model 177 is shown flying from a mountain airstrip with four occupants and a heavy fuel load, a mission the 150 hp version was unable to carry out due to its lack of power. The 177's lack of wing struts and exceptionally large doors made it relatively easy to film the actors sitting in the airplane, an important attribute in filming a low-budget, tightly-scheduled B-movie.

pecifications (Cessna 177B)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Airliners.net

crew=1 pilot
capacity=3 passengers
length main=27 ft 8 in
length alt=8.44 m
span main=35 ft 6 in
span alt=10.82 m
height main=8 ft 7 in
height alt=2.62 m
area main=174 ft²
area alt=16.2 m²
airfoil=
empty weight main=1,495 lb
empty weight alt=680 kg
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=2,500 lb
max takeoff weight alt=1,100 kg
more general=

engine (prop)=Lycoming O-360-A1F6D
type of prop=flat-4 engine
number of props=1
power main=180 hp
power alt=135 kW
max speed main=136 knots
max speed alt=157 mph, 250 km/h
max speed more=
cruise speed main=124 knots
cruise speed alt=143 mph, 230 km/h
cruise speed more=
range main=604 nm
range alt=695 mi, 1,120 km
range more=
ceiling main=14,600 ft
ceiling alt=4,450 m
climb rate main=840 ft/min
climb rate alt=4.27m/s
loading main=
loading alt=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=

References

* [http://www.cardinalflyers.com Cardinal Flyers Online]

External links

* [http://www.cardinalflyers.com Cardinal Flyers Online]
* [http://www.cessna.org/ Cessna Pilots Association]

ee also

aircontent

related=

similar aircraft=
* Beechcraft Musketeer
* Piper Cherokee

sequence=

lists=

see also=


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