Carbonization

Carbonization

Carbonization or Carbonisation is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. It is often used in organic chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from raw coal. Fossil fuels in general are the products of the carbonization of vegetable matter.

Carbonization is often exothermic, which means that it could in principle be made self-sustaining and be used as a source of energy which does not produce carbon dioxide. (See [" [http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19826542.400-burying-trees-to-fight-climate-change.html Burying trees to fight climate change] " by Richard Lovett, New Scientist, 3 May, 2008, pp. 32-5.] .) In the case of glucose, the reaction releases about 237 calories per gram.

When biomaterial is exposed to sudden searing heat (as in the case of an atomic bomb explosion or pyroclastic flow from a volcano, for instance), it can be carbonized extremely quickly, turning it into solid carbon. In the destruction of Herculaneum by a volcano, many organic objects such as furniture were carbonized by the intense heat.

In one study Ref|1 carbonization was used to create a new catalyst for the generation of biodiesel from ethanol and fatty acids. The catalyst was created by carbonization of simple sugars such as glucose and sucrose. The sugars were processed for 15 hours at 400 °C under a nitrogen flow to a black carbon residue consisting of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets. This material was then treated with sulfuric acid which functionalized the sheets with sulfonite, carboxyl and hydroxyl catalytic sites.

External links

* [http://vulcan.fis.uniroma3.it/vesuvio/excursiontext.html carbonization processes at Herculaneum site]

References

* "Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst" Masakazu Toda, Atsushi Takagaki, Mai Okamura, Junko N. Kondo, Shigenobu Hayashi, Kazunari Domen and Michikazu Hara Nature 438, 178 (10 November 2005) doi:10.1038/438178a [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7065/abs/438178a.html;jsessionid=5EF9576FD23F6923C31E50D18DEA7AFF Abstract]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Carbonization — Car bon*i*za tion, n. [Cf. F. carbonisation.] 1. The act or process of carbonizing. [1913 Webster] 2. the destructive distillation of coal (as in coke ovens). Syn: carbonisation. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Carbonization — Carbonization. См. Карбонизация. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • carbonization — (Amer.) car·bon·i·za·tion || ‚kɑːbÉ™naɪ zeɪʃn n. process of converting into carbon; process of carbonizing; process of becoming carbonized; act of raising the level of carbon in metals (also carbonisation) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • carbonization — anglėjimas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Organinės medžiagos virtimas anglimi. atitikmenys: angl. carbonization rus. обугливание …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • carbonization — koksavimas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Kietojo arba skystojo kuro beoris kaitinimas. atitikmenys: angl. carbonization; coking rus. коксование …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • carbonization — karbonizacija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Medžiagos, veikiamos CO₂, virtimas karbonatais. atitikmenys: angl. carbonization rus. карбонизация …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • carbonization — karbonizacija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Organinės medžiagos virtimas anglimi. atitikmenys: angl. carbonization rus. карбонизация ryšiai: sinonimas – anglinimas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • carbonization — karbonizacija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Uolienų kitimas joms virstant metalų karbonatais. atitikmenys: angl. carbonization rus. карбонизация …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • carbonization — carbonize (also carbonise) ► VERB ▪ convert into carbon, by heating or burning. DERIVATIVES carbonization noun …   English terms dictionary

  • carbonization — noun Date: 1804 the process of carbonizing; especially destructive distillation …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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