- ABM-1 Galosh
type=anti-ballistic missile (ABM)
manufacturer=TsNPO Vympel and NIIRP
Designer: K.B. Kisunko
Designer: P.D. Grushin
service=Phase 1- 1972 A-350
Phase 2- 1974 A-350R
Phase 3- 1978 A-35M System
engine=solid fuel rocket motor (3)
w/ RD-O15T ramjet
First stage: 5S47 [ [http://www.astronautix.com/stages/5s47.htm Astronautix: "5S47 Solid Rocket Motor"] ]
Second stage: 5D22 [ [http://www.astronautix.com/stages/5d22.htm Astronautix: "5D22 Solid Rocket Motor"] ]
ABM-1 Galosh [ [http://www.designation-systems.net/non-us/soviet.html#_Listings_ABM NATO Designation-systems Index: "Soviet Anti-ballistic Missiles (ABM)"] ] is a nuclear tipped
surface-to-airanti-ballistic missile(ABM). [ [http://www.wonderland.org.nz/rusabgm.htm#ABM-1 Wonderland.org: "ABM-1"] ] The Galosh is based on the A-35 ABM System using Grushin model A-350 missile. cite web |url=http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/a35.htm |title=A-35 |work=Encyclopedia Astronautica |accessdate=2008-08-25 ] The primary mission was to destroy U.S.Minuteman and Titan Intercontinental ballistic missile(ICBMs) targeting Moscow.
The ABM-1 was introduced in the 1960s with a mechanically steered
radarfor its guidance. It contained a high-yield nuclear warhead, comparable to the US Nike Zeus.
The ABM-1B with the advanced A-35M missile system and A-350R missile/warhead went operational in 1978.
The next generation versions using the A-135 ABM System were the
ABM-3 Gazelle[ [http://www.wonderland.org.nz/rusabgm.htm#ABM-3 Wonderland.org: "ABM-3"] ] (1970s), and ABM-4 Gorgon[ [http://www.wonderland.org.nz/rusabgm.htm#ABM-4 Wonderland.org: "ABM-4"] ] (1980s) missiles.
The ABM-1 Galosh was a three-stage solid-fueled design with a range of over 300 kilometers. The ABM-1B was improved with a restartable liquid-fueled third stage. This gave a much improved post-launch and re-targeting capabilities. The Galosh are fired from above-ground launchers. [http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/program/soviet/abm1.htm Federation of Scientists: "ABM-1"] ]
The missile design was done by
MKB Fakel's Chief Designer Petr Grushin.
The system had multiple radars during the different phases including the "Pill Box" and "Hen House" early warning systems, and the "Dog House" and "Cat House" target acquisitioning systems. The A-35 with radar was done by Chief Designer K.B. Kisunko.
The need for this system was to protect Moscow from nuclear attack by the United States. The Russian government began studies in 1958 with preliminary designs from General Designer
K. B. Kisunko. Further designs and devlopement were moved to TsNPO Vympel. Radar systems were tested with Duna-3 single direction search radar and the Dunay-3U omni-direction 360-degree search radar, designed by V.P. Sosulnikov and A. N. Musatov, respectively. A more advanced system of radars were included, the Don-2N System; consisting of the 6000 km long range early warning systems, (NATO code names "Pill Box" and "Hen House"), and the 2800 km short range target acquisition radars (NATO codenames "Dog House" and "Cat House").
The A-350 went through a period of growth and modifications. Configurations included an improved A-350Zh with tests in 1973. Eventually, the designed changed again with radiation harden cases and became the A-350R for Phase 2 deployment in 1974.
The construction of the ABM-1 system began in 1962 with 16 primary sites including command post, radar installations. and firing complexes for 8-16 missile launchers. Some of the existing sites of the old
SA-1 Guildwere modified. Some known locations are: Naro-Fominsk, Olenegorsk, Skrudna, Angarsk, Nikolaeyev, and Sary Shagan.
One of the "Dog House"
phased array radarsystems was located at Naro-Fominsk. This system is comparable to the US's PAVE PAWSradars of the Sentinal and Safeguard ABM programs.
The construction plan changed a number of times, varying the locations, sectors or quadrants, and number of launchers. The system finalized at 8 sites with total of 64 launchers, with 4 major radar centers completed.
Advanced A-35M system (ABM-1B)
With on-going advancements in the ABM system, radars, missile and warheads, the evolution of the ABM-1 Galosh became the ABM-1B Galosh. The "M" for modernization, was brought on through the advanced developments at 10 different Russian institutes. One primary upgrade was in the Dunay-3U radar systems enhanced with a dedicated sector search abilility. Along with other upgrades, actual air tests were performed with different configurations between 1976-77. Phase 3 of the Galosh when on-line in 1978.
List of missiles;Treaties
Strategic Defense Initiative
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
;Related US missiles
* [http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,239.msg1414.html#msg1414 Secret Projects: ABM-1 Specifications]
* [http://www.astronautix.com/lvfam/rusdabms.htm Astronautix: "Russian SAMs and ABMs"]
* [http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,239.0.html Secret Projects: Russian ABM system]
* [http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/weapons/q0180.shtml#Anti-Ballistic AeroSpaceWEb: ABMs]
* [http://forum.keypublishing.co.uk/showthread.php?t=38757 ABM-1 Galosh and A-35 site photos] scroll down
* [http://www.designation-systems.net/non-us/soviet.html#_Listings_ABM NATO Soviet Naming Conventions for ABMs]
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