- Treaty of Kyakhta
The Treaty of Kyakhta (sometimes known as the Treaty of Kiakhta) ( _ru. Кяхтинский договор; zh-cp|c=布連斯奇條約/恰克圖條約|p=Bùliánsīqí/Qiàkètú tiáoyuē) was one of several treaties between
Imperial Russiaand the Qing Empirein the early modern period, establishing trade agreements and defining the border between Russian Siberiaand the Qing territories of Mongoliaand Manchuria. It was signed by Tulišenand Count Sava Lukich Raguzinskii-Vladislavichat the border city of Kyakhta, August 23, 1727.
Adhering to the doctrine of
Uti Possidetis Juris, the Treaty of Kyakhta set the borders between Russia and China at the Kyakhta and Argun Rivers, and, along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk( 1689) and Treaty of Aigun( 1858) established the borders we know today. It also dealt with the legal and commercial relations of the two nations on the frontier; punishments for specific crimes were delineated, and an Article on the exchange of fugitives was included. In addition, Russian merchants, emporia, and the like in the area would be given a certain degree of extraterritoriality, and acultural allowances. Among other provisions, they were allowed freedom from having to pay tribute to the Emperor. The treaty had three official versions, one Russian, one Latin and one Manchu; no official Chinese version of the treaty exists.
The Treaty had eleven articles, the core of which dealt with commercial relations and diplomatic immunities.
*Articles I and XI spoke of eternal peace and cooperation between the two nations, and concerned itself with the language and organization of the rest of the document.
*Article II dealt with the exchange of fugitives.
*Article III, along with VII, delineated the new borders, leaving only territory along the
Ob River, east of the Gorbitsa, unassigned. The fate of this land, according to the treaty, would be determined in the future by ambassadors or further correspondence between the two nations' capitals.
*Article VI dealt with commercial relations; from this treaty and others, Russia gained far more favorable commercial arrangements with the Chinese than most European countries, who traveled by sea and traded at Canton.
*Article V allowed for the establishment of a Russian religious institution in
*Article VI, along with IX, concerned itself with the forms and modes of diplomatic intercourse between the two nations, both of which had complex systems of bureaucracy and protocol.
*Article VIII, along with X, discussed the methods and procedures for settling future disputes.
*Perdue, Peter C. "China marches west: The Qing conquest of Central Eurasia." Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005.
*Peresvetova, Julianna (January, 1998). [http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/3sinosov.htm Sino-Soviet Amur Conflict] , The Inventory of Conflict & Environment case studies, American University, Washington DC. Accessed 23 April 2005.
*Widmer, Eric. "The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking During the Eighteenth Century." Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, 1976.
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