- School bullying
School bullying is a type of
bullyingthat occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time. [http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/index.asp?area=whatbullyingis] [http://parentingteens.about.com/cs/bullying/a/bullyproof.htm] School shootingshave focused attention on student bullying, with shooters in several of the worst shootings reporting they were bullied.
Studies prompted by the shootings have shown long-lasting emotional harm to victims. The studies also revealed that bullies themselves are likely to suffer problems as children and adults. [http://parentingteens.about.com/cs/bullying/a/bullying.htm]
Many educational institutions have implemented anti-bullying campaigns. Studies in Norway and England confirm these programs can be effective. The programs usually focus on increasing awareness and supervision, establishing clear rules, and providing support and protection for victims.
Children who are gay or
gender variantare particularly vulnerable to bullying. The gender variant child may well wish to transitionto his/her affirmed gender roleand this needs particularly sensitive treatment by the school. A recent publication, sponsored by the United Kingdom Home Office gives a number of case studies of transsexualchildren and provides a toolkit for schools to deal with the issues that arise [cite web| author= | first = Reed | last = Bernard | coauthors= Stephenne Rhodes, Terry Reed | title = Combating Transphobic Bullying: Toolkit for Schools | publisher = Gender Identity Research and Education Society | date = October 2008 | url = http://www.gires.org.uk/schools.php| format = pdf | accessdate = 2008-10-3 ] .
Types of bullying and what it means to bully
School bullying is behavior intended to harm or disturb the victim. It can be physical or emotional and can occur in person, electronically, or indirectly.
Physical school bullying
Examples of physical bullying include: [http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/index.asp?area=whatbullyingis]
* Other acts that hurt people physically and emotionally
Wedgies[of all types]
* Teasing and abusing
Emotional school bullying
Examples of emotional bullying include: [http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/index.asp?area=whatbullyingis]
* Spreading bad rumors about people
* Keeping certain people out of a "group"
* Teasing people in mean ways
* Getting certain people to "gang up" on others
* Name calling
* Taunts, Insults etc
Electronic bullying: (cyber-bullying)
Bullying also can happen on-line or electronically. This form of harassment is known as
Cyber-bullying. It occurs when someone bullies through the Internet, mobile phones or other electronic means. [http://stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/index.asp?area=whatbullyingis] Examples include:
* Sending mean text, e-mail, or instant messages.
* Posting inappropriate pictures or messages about others in blogs or on Web sites.
* Using someone else's user name to spread rumors or lies about someone.
* Lying to hurt internally and externally.
Causes of school bullying
Some children bully because they have been isolated, and they have a deep need for belonging, but they do not possess the social skills to effectively keep friends ("see
social rejection").Williams, K.D., Forgás, J.P. & von Hippel, W. (Eds.) (2005). [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/184169424X "The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, & Bullying."] Psychology Press: New York, NY.]
One student or a group can bully another student or a group of students. Bystanders may participate or watch, sometimes out of fear of becoming the next victim. People that bully other people are the types of kids that enjoy putting other people down and that makes them feel better about themselves. People like that also feel insecure about themselves by putting others down.
Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: there is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse, humiliation, or exclusion - even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies. [Garbarino, J. & de Lara, E. (2003). [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0743228995 "And Words CAN Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence."] The Free Press: New York NY.] [Whitted, K.S. (2005). [http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=12-10-2012&FMT=7&DID=990282831&RQT=309&attempt=1 "Student reports of physical and psychological maltreatment in schools: An under-explored aspect of student victimization in schools."] University of Tennessee.]
trategies to reduce bullying within schools
Researchers (Olweus, 1993;Olweus, D. (1993). "Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do". Oxford Blackwell Publishers.] Craig & Peplar, 1999;Craig, W.M. & Peplar, D.J. (1999). Children who bully - Will they just grow out of it? "Orbit", 29 (4), 16 - 19.] Ross, 1998; [ Ross, P.N. (1998). [http://worldcat.org/oclc/43885480?tab=details "Arresting violence: a resource guide for schools and their communities."] Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers' Federation.] Morrison, 2002; [Morrison, B. (2002). [http://crj.anu.edu.au/menus/PDFs/pubs.bm.rcp.pdf Bullying and victimisation in schools: a restorative justice approach.] "Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice." No.219; Feb. 2002. Australian Institute of Criminology.] Whitted & Dupper, 2005; [Whitted, K.S. & Dupper, D.R. (2005). [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nasw/cs/2005/00000027/00000003/art00005 Best Practices for Preventing or Reducing Bullying in Schools.] "Children and Schools", Vol. 27, No. 3, July 2005 , pp. 167-175(9).]
Post traumatic stress disorder
* [http://parentingteens.about.com/cs/bullying/a/bullyproof.htm Make Your Child Bully Proof]
* [http://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/bullying.cfm ”Bullying Widespread in U.S. Schools, Study Finds”, National Institutes for Health]
* [http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov Stop Bullying Now, Health Resources and Services Administration]
* [http://family.samhsa.gov/teach/middleschool_bullies.aspx Bullying Affects All Middle School Kids, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)]
* [http://www.teachersandfamilies.com/open/parent/ra1.cfm Girls Bullying Girls: An Introduction to Relational Aggression, National Association of School Psychologists]
* [http://www.projectrockit.com.au PROJECT ROCKIT: Anti-bullying program run BY young people FOR young people]
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