- Samuil Micu-Klein
Samuil Micu Klein (September 1745 -
13 May 1806) was a Romanian theologist, historian, philologist and philosopher, a member of the Enlightenment-era movement of Transylvanian School(Şcoala Ardeleană).
Born as "Maniu Micu" in the
Transylvanian village of Sadu, in the Austrian Empire(now in Sibiu County, Romania), he was the son of a Greek-Catholic protopopeand the nephew of bishop Inocenţiu Micu-Klein. [Hitchins, p. 667.]
He began studying to study at the Seminary of
Blajand he joined the Order of Saint Basilin 1762. Micu received a scholarship in 1762 and began studying at the Catholic PázmáneumUniversity of Vienna. There is little known about his life in Vienna, but it is known he was attracted to science, studying experimental physics, mechanics and mathematics, in addition to theology and philosophy. [Hitchins, p. 667.]
In 1772, returning to Blaj to teach ethics and mathematics at the Seminary, Klein met and befriended bishop
Grigorie Maior, whom he accompanied in visits throughout his diocese, trying to win converts to Greek-Catholicism. These trips proved to be useful in his study of the Romanian language, especially of the language spoken by the peasants, gathering materials for a future grammar. Klain was also interested in Romanian folklore, his writings being one the earliest works on it. [Hitchins, p. 667-668.]
In 1774, he finished writing a work of history named "De ortu progressu conversione valachorum episcopis item archiepiscopis et metropolitis eorum", which talked about the Roman origins of the Romanians and the origins of their faith in the Roman Christian Church in ancient
Dacia. Apparently, his goal was to make the bishopric become a metropolis, so it would no longer belong to the Archdiocese of Esztergom. [Hitchins, p. 668.]
He went to Vienna in 1779 to become a
prefect of studiesat the Saint Barbara College, he published in 1780, together with Gheorghe Sincaithe first Romanian grammar, "Elementa linguae daco-romanae sive valachicae". [Hitchins, p. 668.]
Klein returned to Blaj, and between 1782 and 1804, he was very productive both in his translations and in writing original works: [Hitchins, p. 668-669]
* translation of textbooks for Blaj schools
* translation of over seventy-seven titles and 7,500 pages from the
* a history of Romania entitled "Scurtă cunoştinţă a istoriei Românilor" (1792)
* a translation of the bible ("
Biblia de la Blaj", 1795)
* a four-volume Latin draft of "Istoria, lucrurile şi întâmplările Românilor" (1800, though only a 1805 translation to Romanian survived)
Klein moved to
Budain 1804 to become the editor at the University of Buda press for the Romanian-language books, hoping that this would allow him to publish his historical works, a project which did not become true because of his death just two years later. [Hitchins, p. 669.]
* Keith Hitchins, "Samuel Clain and the Rumanian Enlightenment in Transylvania", "Slavic Review", Vol. 23, No. 4. (Dec., 1964), pp. 660-675.
* Pompiliu Teodor, "Sub semnul luminilor. Samuil Micu" Editura Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj, 2000, 507 p.
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