PYD and CARD domain containing, also known as PYCARD, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PYCARD PYD and CARD domain containing| url =| accessdate = ]

This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN domain (PYD) and a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The PYD and CARD domains are members of the six-helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily that mediates assembly of large signaling complexes in the inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways via the activation of caspase. In normal cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm; however, in cells undergoing apoptosis, it forms ball-like aggregates near the nuclear periphery. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: PYCARD PYD and CARD domain containing| url =| accessdate = ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Masumoto J, Taniguchi S, Ayukawa K, "et al." |title=ASC, a novel 22-kDa protein, aggregates during apoptosis of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=274 |issue= 48 |pages= 33835–8 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10567338 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lee SK, Na SY, Jung SY, "et al." |title=Activating protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ASC-2. |journal=Mol. Endocrinol. |volume=14 |issue= 6 |pages= 915–25 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10847592 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Conway KE, McConnell BB, Bowring CE, "et al." |title=TMS1, a novel proapoptotic caspase recruitment domain protein, is a target of methylation-induced gene silencing in human breast cancers. |journal=Cancer Res. |volume=60 |issue= 22 |pages= 6236–42 |year= 2000 |pmid= 11103776 |doi=
*cite journal | author=McConnell BB, Vertino PM |title=Activation of a caspase-9-mediated apoptotic pathway by subcellular redistribution of the novel caspase recruitment domain protein TMS1. |journal=Cancer Res. |volume=60 |issue= 22 |pages= 6243–7 |year= 2000 |pmid= 11103777 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Martinon F, Hofmann K, Tschopp J |title=The pyrin domain: a possible member of the death domain-fold family implicated in apoptosis and inflammation. |journal=Curr. Biol. |volume=11 |issue= 4 |pages= R118–20 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11250163 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Geddes BJ, Wang L, Huang WJ, "et al." |title=Human CARD12 is a novel CED4/Apaf-1 family member that induces apoptosis. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=284 |issue= 1 |pages= 77–82 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11374873 |doi= 10.1006/bbrc.2001.4928
*cite journal | author=Richards N, Schaner P, Diaz A, "et al." |title=Interaction between pyrin and the apoptotic speck protein (ASC) modulates ASC-induced apoptosis. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 42 |pages= 39320–9 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11498534 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M104730200
*cite journal | author=Stimson KM, Vertino PM |title=Methylation-mediated silencing of TMS1/ASC is accompanied by histone hypoacetylation and CpG island-localized changes in chromatin architecture. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 7 |pages= 4951–8 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11733524 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M109809200
*cite journal | author=Manji GA, Wang L, Geddes BJ, "et al." |title=PYPAF1, a PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like protein that assembles with ASC and regulates activation of NF-kappa B. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 13 |pages= 11570–5 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11786556 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M112208200
*cite journal | author=Srinivasula SM, Poyet JL, Razmara M, "et al." |title=The PYRIN-CARD protein ASC is an activating adaptor for caspase-1. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 24 |pages= 21119–22 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11967258 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.C200179200
*cite journal | author=Wang L, Manji GA, Grenier JM, "et al." |title=PYPAF7, a novel PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like protein that regulates activation of NF-kappa B and caspase-1-dependent cytokine processing. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 33 |pages= 29874–80 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12019269 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M203915200
*cite journal | author=Shiohara M, Taniguchi S, Masumoto J, "et al." |title=ASC, which is composed of a PYD and a CARD, is up-regulated by inflammation and apoptosis in human neutrophils. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=293 |issue= 5 |pages= 1314–8 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12054656 |doi= 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00384-4
*cite journal | author=Martinon F, Burns K, Tschopp J |title=The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta. |journal=Mol. Cell |volume=10 |issue= 2 |pages= 417–26 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12191486 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Stehlik C, Fiorentino L, Dorfleutner A, "et al." |title=The PAAD/PYRIN-family protein ASC is a dual regulator of a conserved step in nuclear factor kappaB activation pathways. |journal=J. Exp. Med. |volume=196 |issue= 12 |pages= 1605–15 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12486103 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Moriai R, Tsuji N, Kobayashi D, "et al." |title=A proapoptotic caspase recruitment domain protein gene, TMS1, is hypermethylated in human breast and gastric cancers. |journal=Anticancer Res. |volume=22 |issue= 6C |pages= 4163–8 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12553049 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dowds TA, Masumoto J, Chen FF, "et al." |title=Regulation of cryopyrin/Pypaf1 signaling by pyrin, the familial Mediterranean fever gene product. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=302 |issue= 3 |pages= 575–80 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12615073 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Masumoto J, Dowds TA, Schaner P, "et al." |title=ASC is an activating adaptor for NF-kappa B and caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=303 |issue= 1 |pages= 69–73 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12646168 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Stehlik C, Krajewska M, Welsh K, "et al." |title=The PAAD/PYRIN-only protein POP1/ASC2 is a modulator of ASC-mediated nuclear-factor-kappa B and pro-caspase-1 regulation. |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=373 |issue= Pt 1 |pages= 101–13 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12656673 |doi= 10.1042/BJ20030304
*cite journal | author=Levine JJ, Stimson-Crider KM, Vertino PM |title=Effects of methylation on expression of TMS1/ASC in human breast cancer cells. |journal=Oncogene |volume=22 |issue= 22 |pages= 3475–88 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12776200 |doi= 10.1038/sj.onc.1206430

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