Carbonic anhydrase IX, also known as CA9, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX| url =| accessdate = ]

section_title =
summary_text = Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and the only tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX| url =| accessdate = ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Nishimori I, Onishi S |title=Carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the human pancreas. |journal=Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver |volume=33 |issue= 1 |pages= 68–74 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11303978 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Pastoreková S, Závadová Z, Kostál M, "et al." |title=A novel quasi-viral agent, MaTu, is a two-component system. |journal=Virology |volume=187 |issue= 2 |pages= 620–6 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1312272 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Pastorek J, Pastoreková S, Callebaut I, "et al." |title=Cloning and characterization of MN, a human tumor-associated protein with a domain homologous to carbonic anhydrase and a putative helix-loop-helix DNA binding segment. |journal=Oncogene |volume=9 |issue= 10 |pages= 2877–88 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8084592 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Závada J, Závadová Z, Pastoreková S, "et al." |title=Expression of MaTu-MN protein in human tumor cultures and in clinical specimens. |journal=Int. J. Cancer |volume=54 |issue= 2 |pages= 268–74 |year= 1993 |pmid= 8486430 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Opavský R, Pastoreková S, Zelník V, "et al." |title=Human MN/CA9 gene, a novel member of the carbonic anhydrase family: structure and exon to protein domain relationships. |journal=Genomics |volume=33 |issue= 3 |pages= 480–7 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8661007 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Pastoreková S, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, "et al." |title=Carbonic anhydrase IX, MN/CA IX: analysis of stomach complementary DNA sequence and expression in human and rat alimentary tracts. |journal=Gastroenterology |volume=112 |issue= 2 |pages= 398–408 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9024293 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Saarnio J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, "et al." |title=Immunohistochemistry of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (MN/CA IX) in human gut reveals polarized expression in the epithelial cells with the highest proliferative capacity. |journal=J. Histochem. Cytochem. |volume=46 |issue= 4 |pages= 497–504 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9524195 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ivanov SV, Kuzmin I, Wei MH, "et al." |title=Down-regulation of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by wild-type von Hippel-Lindau transgenes. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=95 |issue= 21 |pages= 12596–601 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9770531 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Nakagawa Y, Uemura H, Hirao Y, "et al." |title=Radiation hybrid mapping of the human MN/CA9 locus to chromosome band 9p12-p13. |journal=Genomics |volume=53 |issue= 1 |pages= 118–9 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9787087 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1998.5483
*cite journal | author=Grabmaier K, Vissers JL, De Weijert MC, "et al." |title=Molecular cloning and immunogenicity of renal cell carcinoma-associated antigen G250. |journal=Int. J. Cancer |volume=85 |issue= 6 |pages= 865–70 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10709109 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kivelä AJ, Parkkila S, Saarnio J, "et al." |title=Expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes IX and XII in normal human pancreas and pancreatic tumours. |journal=Histochem. Cell Biol. |volume=114 |issue= 3 |pages= 197–204 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11083462 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Wingo T, Tu C, Laipis PJ, Silverman DN |title=The catalytic properties of human carbonic anhydrase IX. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=288 |issue= 3 |pages= 666–9 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11676494 |doi= 10.1006/bbrc.2001.5824
*cite journal | author=Kivela AJ, Saarnio J, Karttunen TJ, "et al." |title=Differential expression of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases, CA I and II, and membrane-associated isozymes, CA IX and XII, in normal mucosa of large intestine and in colorectal tumors. |journal=Dig. Dis. Sci. |volume=46 |issue= 10 |pages= 2179–86 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11680594 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, "et al." |title=Hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) relates to poor vascularization and resistance of squamous cell head and neck cancer to chemoradiotherapy. |journal=Clin. Cancer Res. |volume=7 |issue= 11 |pages= 3399–403 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11705854 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Grabmaier K, de Weijert M, Uemura H, "et al." |title=Renal cell carcinoma-associated G250 methylation and expression: in vivo and in vitro studies. |journal=Urology |volume=60 |issue= 2 |pages= 357–62 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12137853 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kaluz S, Kaluzová M, Chrastina A, "et al." |title=Lowered oxygen tension induces expression of the hypoxia marker MN/carbonic anhydrase IX in the absence of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha stabilization: a role for phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase. |journal=Cancer Res. |volume=62 |issue= 15 |pages= 4469–77 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12154057 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Swinson DE, Jones JL, Richardson D, "et al." |title=Carbonic anhydrase IX expression, a novel surrogate marker of tumor hypoxia, is associated with a poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer. |journal=J. Clin. Oncol. |volume=21 |issue= 3 |pages= 473–82 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12560438 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bui MH, Seligson D, Han KR, "et al." |title=Carbonic anhydrase IX is an independent predictor of survival in advanced renal clear cell carcinoma: implications for prognosis and therapy. |journal=Clin. Cancer Res. |volume=9 |issue= 2 |pages= 802–11 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12576453 |doi=

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