Architectural engineer (PE)

Architectural engineer (PE)

The architectural engineer is a professional engineering designation in the United States. The architectural engineer applies the knowledge and skills of broader engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings and their component systems while paying careful attention to their effects on the surrounding environment.

Formal architectural engineering education, following the professional engineering model of earlier disciplines, began in the late 1800s, and became widespread in the U.S in the early to mid-1900s. In Texas, engineers have been designing buildings since 50 years prior to the state's architect community gaining a Title Act in Texas law.Fact|date=March 2008 The architect community challenged Architectural Engineers' competition by seeking a Texas Attorney General opinion on tha matter, which was decided in 1989 against the Act; Engineers could continue to design buildings in competition with architects, although most Architectural Engineers have not chosen to do soFact|date=March 2008balance.

With the establishment of a specific "Architectural Engineering" NCEES Professional Engineering registration examination in the 1990s, and first offering in April 2003, Architectural Engineering is now recognized as a distinct engineering discipline in the United States. Many practicing 'architectural engineers' have degrees in Architectural Engineering, of course; others have degrees and registration in civil, mechanical, electrical, or other engineering fields and become architectural engineers via experience.Fact|date=November 2007 Conversely, many degree-holding architectural engineers have professional registration in civil or mechanical engineering, for example.Fact|date=November 2007 The number of architectural engineering degree programs is increasing, but demand far exceeds the availability in the U.S.Fact|date=November 2007, especially on the East and West Coasts, and in the South.

Note that "architectural engineering technology" is different from architectural engineering; architectural engineering technologists tend to be drafters or other building technology assistants for the design and construction process.

Difference from component disciplines

What differentiates architectural engineering (abbreviated AE, ARE, AREN, or ARCE, for example) from its component engineering disciplines is its knowledge of, training in, and appreciation of architecture and the need to integrate building systems within the building design.Fact|date=November 2007 These systems include literally every life-safety system in buildings: structural, HVAC, plumbing, fire protection, electrical, lighting, and transportation. The Architectural Engineer, with his/her interdisciplinary engineering background, typically competes with architectsFact|date=March 2008.

Architectural Engineers' roles do indeed sometimes compete with that of the architect. Like architects, they seek to achieve optimal designs within the overall constraints, except that the Architectural Engineer uses primarily the tools of engineering, whereas the architect also uses the creative manipulation of mass, space, volume, texture, light, shadow, materials, program, and pragmatic elements such as cost, construction and technology, in order to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and often artistic. Architectural Engineers are entitled to design buildings in Texas, in competition with architectsFact|date=March 2008; in other jurisdictions, registered professional architectural engineers are limited, by virtue of the exams taken, to practicing only one or more of the component areas of building engineering practice such as mechanical (HVAC/plumbing/etc.), electrical, structural, or fire protection.Fact|date=November 2007

In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on sustainable and green design, including in engineered building systems. Architectural engineers increasingly seek LEED ((R) USGBC) Accredited Design Professional (LADP) status in addition to their Professional Engineering registration.

ome Potential Career Titles

* Consulting Engineer/Design Engineer/Designer. An Engineer, usually a Professional Engineer, or if early in his or her career, an Engineer-in-Training that designs and specifies buildings and their systems, analyses problems, or optimizes conditions, for example. Typically employed by, or owner of, a consulting engineering firm, but also commonly in an A/E (architectural and engineering services) firm.

* Plant/Facilities Engineer. The owner's management liaison person interacting with architects, contractors, and engineers in the design and construction of remodeling, additions, and new facilities. Manages and develops such programs within the plant as energy conservation, preventative maintenance, and retrofits.

* Sales/Applications Engineer. Provides technical advice and application of their representative products to the building industry's architects, engineers, and constructors.

* Construction Project Manager. Manages the construction of a building project. Responsibilities include the scheduling of labor trades, material, and equipment for the most economical and expeditious construction of buildings.

* Construction Estimator. The estimator is responsible for the takeoff material, type of labor, and equipment, and calculating the cost for the construction project plus preparing the necessary documents for the estimate.

* Structural Engineer. Analyzes, calculates, and selects systems and components for various structures. Graduates are employed within the building industry, but also in other structural areas. Graduate study, and additional registration exams in structural engineering are recommended and/or required by many registration boards and professional societies.

* Electrical Systems Engineer. Designs and specifies electrical power, lighting, and communication systems for buildings. Employed in an electrical consulting design office or in electrical design-construction offices. Other responsibilities may be preparing specifications and cost estimates.

* Electrical Utility Engineer. Coordinates new building construction with building owners, design engineers, and contractors, and educates customers on conservation and cost saving opportunities while optimizing the loads on the utility.

* Building Inspector. Employed by a public agency. Responsible for the public interest to inspect building projects for code compliance.

* Fire Safety/Protection Engineer. Designs various types of fire protection systems within the building. Systems include sprinkler, chemical suppression, smoke control, and detection devices.

* Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Engineer. Designs the HVAC systems and prepares the specifications.

* Plumbing Engineer. Designs the potable water, process fluids, and wastewater systems for the buildings.

* Professor/Researcher. Teaches and performs research and service. Typically requires completion of a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in engineering degree.

Major specializations

* Architecture
* Structural engineering
* Construction engineering
* Construction management
* Project management
* Green building
* Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC)
* Plumbing and piping (hydronics)
* Fire protection engineering
* Building power systems
* Lighting
* Building transportation systems
* Acoustics, noise & vibration control

A common combined specialization is "Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing", better known by its abbreviation MEP. An MEP design engineer has experience in HVAC, lighting/electrical, and plumbing systems' analysis and design.

ome topics of special interest

* Building construction
* Building Information Modeling (BIM)
* Energy efficiency, Energy conservation, or Energy demand management
* Renewable energy
* Solar energy
* Green buildings
* Intelligent buildings
* Autonomous buildings
* Indoor air quality
* Thermal comfort

Typical coursework in bachelor degree programs

Curricula vary considerably between universities, but the following are often present in ABET-accredited four- or five-year B.S. in architectural engineering degree programs in the U.S.:Or|date=November 2007

* An introduction to architectural engineering
* Two courses in English
* Five courses in mathematics (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, probability)
* Two courses in physics
* One course in chemistry
* One course in science (e.g., geology, environment, biology)
* Several courses in humanities/social sciences (e.g., architectural history, sociology)
* Two courses in architectural design
* Two courses in building materials and construction

Engineering science courses in:
* Statics and dynamics
* Strength of materials
* Structural analysis
* Basic circuits
* Thermodynamics
* Fluid mechanics
* Heat transfer
* Engineering economics
* Computer programming
* Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD)

Engineering design courses in:
* Structures (e.g., steel, concrete, and/or wood design)
* Construction
* Power and lighting systems
* Plumbing and piping systems
* Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems
* Senior design project
* electives

Educational institutions offering bachelor's degrees in architectural engineering

Programs accredited by ABET, and that are members of AEI, are denoted below.
* [ California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI] (ABET, AEI)
* [ North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Penn State University, State College, PA] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN] (ABET, AEI)
* [ Texas A&M University, Kingsville, TX]
* [ University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO] (ABET, AEI)
* [ University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS] (ABET, AEI)
* [,1770,6489-1;8759-3,00.html University of Miami, Miami, FL] (ABET, AEI)
* [ University of Missouri at Rolla, Rolla, MO] (ABET, AEI)
* [ University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE] (ABET, AEI)
* [ University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK] (ABET)
* [ University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX] (ABET, AEI)
* [ University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY] (ABET, AEI)

External links

For all architectural engineers:
* [ The Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI)]
* [ The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE)]

For the specializations:
* [ The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)]
* [ The American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE)]
* [ Associated General Contractors of America (AGC)]
* [ The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA)]
* [ The Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE)]
* [ The Structural Engineering Institute (SEI)]
* [ The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)]

For educational programs' accreditation:
* [ The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)]

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