AKT3

AKT3

V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (protein kinase B, gamma), also known as AKT3, is a human gene.

PBB_Summary
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summary_text = The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AKT, also called PKB, serine/threonine protein kinase family. AKT kinases are known to be regulators of cell signaling in response to insulin and growth factors. They are involved in a wide variety of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, as well as glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake. This kinase has been shown to be stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Alternatively splice transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: AKT3 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (protein kinase B, gamma)| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=10000| accessdate = ] Mice lacking Akt3 have a normal glucose metabolism (no diabetes), have approximately normal body weight, but have a 25% reduction in brain mass. Incidentally, Akt3 is highly expressed in the brain.

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Li W, Zhang J, Bottaro DP, Pierce JH |title=Identification of serine 643 of protein kinase C-delta as an important autophosphorylation site for its enzymatic activity. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=272 |issue= 39 |pages= 24550–5 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9305920 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Borgatti P, Zauli G, Colamussi ML, "et al." |title=Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3- and Akt/PKB kinases in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid Jurkat cells. |journal=Eur. J. Immunol. |volume=27 |issue= 11 |pages= 2805–11 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9394803 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Walker KS, Deak M, Paterson A, "et al." |title=Activation of protein kinase B beta and gamma isoforms by insulin in vivo and by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 in vitro: comparison with protein kinase B alpha. |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=331 ( Pt 1) |issue= |pages= 299–308 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9512493 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Brodbeck D, Cron P, Hemmings BA |title=A human protein kinase Bgamma with regulatory phosphorylation sites in the activation loop and in the C-terminal hydrophobic domain. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=274 |issue= 14 |pages= 9133–6 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10092583 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Nakatani K, Sakaue H, Thompson DA, "et al." |title=Identification of a human Akt3 (protein kinase B gamma) which contains the regulatory serine phosphorylation site. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=257 |issue= 3 |pages= 906–10 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10208883 |doi= 10.1006/bbrc.1999.0559
*cite journal | author=Nakatani K, Thompson DA, Barthel A, "et al." |title=Up-regulation of Akt3 in estrogen receptor-deficient breast cancers and androgen-independent prostate cancer lines. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=274 |issue= 31 |pages= 21528–32 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10419456 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Masure S, Haefner B, Wesselink JJ, "et al." |title=Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of the human serine/threonine kinase Akt-3. |journal=Eur. J. Biochem. |volume=265 |issue= 1 |pages= 353–60 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10491192 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Murthy SS, Tosolini A, Taguchi T, Testa JR |title=Mapping of AKT3, encoding a member of the Akt/protein kinase B family, to human and rodent chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. |journal=Cytogenet. Cell Genet. |volume=88 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 38–40 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10773662 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen AA, Miller RJ |title=Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=97 |issue= 14 |pages= 8075–80 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10869418 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.090017497
*cite journal | author=Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA |title=DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination. |journal=Genome Res. |volume=10 |issue= 11 |pages= 1788–95 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11076863 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Zauli G, Milani D, Mirandola P, "et al." |title=HIV-1 Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterase pathway. |journal=FASEB J. |volume=15 |issue= 2 |pages= 483–91 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11156964 |doi= 10.1096/fj.00-0354com
*cite journal | author=Kapasi AA, Fan S, Singhal PC |title=Role of 14-3-3epsilon, c-Myc/Max, and Akt phosphorylation in HIV-1 gp 120-induced mesangial cell proliferation. |journal=Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. |volume=280 |issue= 2 |pages= F333–42 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11208609 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, "et al." |title=Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. |journal=Genome Res. |volume=11 |issue= 3 |pages= 422–35 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11230166 |doi= 10.1101/gr.154701
*cite journal | author=Sandirasegarane L, Kester M |title=Enhanced stimulation of Akt-3/protein kinase B-gamma in human aortic smooth muscle cells. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=283 |issue= 1 |pages= 158–63 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11322783 |doi= 10.1006/bbrc.2001.4739
*cite journal | author=Brodbeck D, Hill MM, Hemmings BA |title=Two splice variants of protein kinase B gamma have different regulatory capacity depending on the presence or absence of the regulatory phosphorylation site serine 472 in the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic domain. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 31 |pages= 29550–8 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11387345 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M104633200
*cite journal | author=Mende I, Malstrom S, Tsichlis PN, "et al." |title=Oncogenic transformation induced by membrane-targeted Akt2 and Akt3. |journal=Oncogene |volume=20 |issue= 32 |pages= 4419–23 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11466625 |doi= 10.1038/sj.onc.1204486
*cite journal | author=Zinda MJ, Johnson MA, Paul JD, "et al." |title=AKT-1, -2, and -3 are expressed in both normal and tumor tissues of the lung, breast, prostate, and colon. |journal=Clin. Cancer Res. |volume=7 |issue= 8 |pages= 2475–9 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11489829 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Laine J, Künstle G, Obata T, Noguchi M |title=Differential regulation of Akt kinase isoforms by the members of the TCL1 oncogene family. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 5 |pages= 3743–51 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11707444 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M107069200
*cite journal | author=Deregibus MC, Cantaluppi V, Doublier S, "et al." |title=HIV-1-Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ AKT-dependent survival pathways in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 28 |pages= 25195–202 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11994280 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M200921200
*cite journal | author=Hodgkinson CP, Sale EM, Sale GJ |title=Characterization of PDK2 activity against protein kinase B gamma. |journal=Biochemistry |volume=41 |issue= 32 |pages= 10351–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12162751 |doi=

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