Infobox Saint
name=St. Sophronius
birth_date=c. 560
death_date=11 March 638
feast_day=11 March
venerated_in=Eastern Orthodox Church

caption=St. Sophronius of Jerusalem
titles=Patriarch of Jerusalem
attributes=Vested as a bishop, with right hand upheld in blessing, holding a Gospel Book or scroll
: "For the Bulgarian enlightener see Sophronius of Vratsa."

Sophronius (born 560 in Damascus - died March 11, 638 in Jerusalem) was the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Before rising to the primacy of the see of Jerusalem, he was a monk and theologian who was the chief protagonist for orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of Jesus and his volitional acts. Bishop Sophronius was of Arab descent. [Donald E. Wagner. "Dying in the Land of Promise: Palestine and Palestinian Christianity from Pentecost to 2000"]

A teacher of rhetoric, Sophronius became an ascetic in Egypt about 580 and then entered the monastery of St. Theodosius near Bethlehem. Traveling to monastic centres in Asia Minor, Egypt, and Rome, he accompanied the Byzantine chronicler John Moschus, who dedicated to him his celebrated tract on the religious life, "Leimõn ho Leimõnon" (Greek: “The Spiritual Meadow”). On the death of Moschus in Rome in 619, Sophronius accompanied the body back to Jerusalem for monastic burial. He traveled to Alexandria, Egypt, and to Constantinople in the year 633 to persuade the respective patriarchs to renounce Monothelitism, a heterodox teaching that espoused a single, divine will in Christ to the exclusion of a human capacity for choice. Sophronius' extensive writings on this question are all lost.

Although unsuccessful in this mission, Sophronius was elected patriarch of Jerusalem in 634. Soon after his enthronement he forwarded his noted synodical letter to Pope Honorius I and to the Eastern patriarchs, explaining the orthodox belief in the two natures, human and divine, of Christ, as opposed to Monothelitism, which he viewed as a subtle form of heretical Monophysitism (which posited a single [divine] nature for Christ). Moreover, he composed a Florilegium (“Anthology”) of some 600 texts from the Greek Church Fathers in favour of the orthodox tenet of Dyotheletism (positing both human and divine wills in Christ). This document also is lost.

In his Christmas sermon of 634, Sophronius was more concerned with keeping the clergy in line with the Chalcedonian view of god, giving only the most conventional of warnings of the Muslim-Arab advance on Palestine, commenting that the Arabs already controlled Bethlehem. Sophronius, who viewed the Muslim control of Palestine as "unwitting representatives of God's inevitable chastisement of weak and wavering Christians", [Averil Cameron and Lawrence Conrad] died soon after the fall of Jerusalem to the caliph Umar I in 637, but not before he had negotiated the recognition of civil and religious liberty for Christians in exchange for tribute - an agreement known as Umari Treaty. The caliph himself came to Jerusalem, and met with the patriarch at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Sophronius invited Umar to pray there, but Umar declined, fearing to endanger the Church's status as a Christian temple. Reportedly, The reason behind this welcoming reception from Sophronius was that-according to biblical prophecies known to the Christian church in Jerusalem at that time-he learned of a time when a humble-but just and powerful-man will come riding a donkey (this description matched the Umar at the time of his arrival) and will actually prove to be a protector and an ally to the Christians of Jerusalem.Fact|date=February 2007

Beside polemics, Sophronius' writings included an encomium on the Alexandrian martyrs Cyrus and John in gratitude for an extraordinary cure of his failing vision. He also wrote 23 Anacreontic (classical metre) poems on such themes as the Arab siege of Jerusalem and on various liturgical celebrations. His [,_Anacreontica_19_and_20 "Anacreontica" 19 and 20] seem to be an expression of the longing desire he had of the Holy City, possibly when he was absent from Jerusalem during one of his many journeys. The order of the two poems has to be inverted to establish a correct sequence of the diverse subjects. Arranged in this way, the two poems describe a complete circuit throughout the most important sanctuaries of Jerusalem at the end of 6th century, described as the golden age of Christianity in the Holy Land. Themes of Anacreonticon 20 include the gates of Jerusalem (or Solyma), the Anastasis, the Rock of the Cross, the Constantinian Basilica, Mount Sion, the Praetorium, St. Mary at the Probatica, and Gethsemane. The Mount of Olives, Bethany, and Bethlehem come next in Anacreonticon 19.


D. Woods, 'The 60 Martyrs of Gaza and the Martyrdom of Bishop Sophronius of Jerusalem’,"ARAM Periodical" 15 (2003), 129-50. Reprinted in M. Bonner (ed.), "Arab-Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times" (Aldershot, 2005), 429-50.

External links

* [ St Sophronius the Patriarch of Jerusalem] Orthodox icon and synaxarion
* [ References by Sophronius to Islam]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sophronius — • Bishop of Constantina or Tella in Osrhoene, was a relative of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, and apparently of the same theological tendency, i. e. strongly anti Monophysite and liable to be suspected of Nestorianism Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Sophronius — ist der Name von Sophronius von Jerusalem (* 560; † 638 (?)), Patriarch von Jerusalem Sophronius Lichud (1652–1730), russischer Philosoph, Logiker und Rhetoriker griechischer Herkunft Sophronius von Wraza (1739–1813), bulgarischer Bischof,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sophronĭus — Sophronĭus, Patriarch von Jerusalem, gest. 11. März 638, Gegner der Monotheleten (s. d.), ist wahrscheinlich identisch mit dem als Hagiographen und Kirchenlieddichter bekannten S., dem Sophisten. Vgl. Krüger in der »Realenzyklopädie für… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • SOPHRONIUS — Episcopus Hierosolymitanus, Damascô oriundus, A. C. 633. Monotheletarum hostis acerrimus. Obiit A. C. 636. Concil. 2. Nicen. Actu 4. Iohan. Damascenus, Photius codic. 231. Niceph. Callistus, l. 7. c. 3. etc. Item Patriarcha Constantinop. saeculô… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Sophronius — ▪ patriarch of Jerusalem born c. 560, , Damascus [Syria] died March 11, 638, Jerusalem       patriarch of Jerusalem, monk, and theologian who was the chief protagonist for orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of… …   Universalium

  • Sophronius, S. (2) — 2S. Sophronius, Patr. Conf. (11. März). Dieser berühmte Heilige war zu Damascus geboren. Seine Eltern hießen Plinthas und Myro(ne). Sie schickten ihn behufs gründlicher Ausbildung an die berühmtesten Lehranstalten jener Zeit. Er machte sich, wie… …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Sophronius, S. (1) — 1S. Sophronius (1. März), ein Martyrer, welcher bei den Griechen verehrt wird. S. S. Silvester. (I. 22.) …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Sophronius, S. (3) — 3S. Sophronius (9. al 8. Dec.), ein Bischof von Constantinopel, welcher auf der Insel Cypern verehrt wird, findet sich im Mart. Rom. und mit einem kleinen Lebensabrisse im Menologium der Griechen. Er steht als Vertheidiger der Wittwen und Waisen …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Sophronius von Jerusalem — Sophronius (* 560 in Damaskus; † 11. März 638 (?) in Jerusalem) war der Patriarch von Jerusalem von 634 bis zu seinem Tod. Bevor er diesen Bischofssitz einnahm, war er Mönch und als Theologe einer der Hauptvertreter der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sophronius of Vratsa — Saint Sophronius of Vratsa (or Sofroniy Vrachanski; bg. Софроний Врачански) (1739–1813), born Stoyko Vladislavov ( bg. Стойко Владиславов), was a Bulgarian cleric and one of the leading figures of the early Bulgarian National Revival.Vladislavov… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”