- Finite element updating
**Finite element model updating**is a process of making sure thatfinite element analysis results in models that better reflect the measured data than the initial models. It is part of Verification & Validation (V&V) of numerical models.This process is conducted by first choosing the domain in which data is presented. The domains used include time domain, frequency domain and time-frequency domain. The second step is to determine the part of the models that are thought to have been modelled incorrectly. The third task is to formulate a function, which has the parameters that are expected to be design variables, and that represents the distance between the measured data and the finite element model predicted data. The fourth step is to implement the optimization method to identify parameters that minimize this function. In most cases, a gradient-based optimization strategy will be used. For nonlinear analysis, more specific methods like Response Surface modelling, Monte Carlo Optimization and genetic algorithms can be used.**References***Friswell, M.I., and Mottershead, J.E., Finite element model updating in structural dynamics, Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Norwell, MA, 1995, pp. 1-286.

*Marwala, T., "Finite element model updating using wavelet data and genetic algorithm" Journal of Aircraft, 39(4), 2002, pp. 709-711.

*Marwala, T., and Heyns, P.S., "A multiple criterion method for detecting damage on structures" AIAA Journal, 195(2), 1998, pp. 1494-1501.

*Levin, R.I. and Lieven, N.A.J, "Dynamic finite element model updating using simulated annealing and genetic algorithms" Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 12(1)**External links*** [

*http://www.atamturktur.com/publications/structural-assessment-of-guastavino-domes/ Manually Updated FE Models for Structural Assessment of Guastavino Domes*]

* [*http://www.femtools.com FEMtools : Software for finite element model updating in static and dynamic structural analysis*]

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