Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo

Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo

Infobox Buddhist biography
name = Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo

img_size =
img_capt = With Dakini Crown, Dakini Day - December 4, 2007, Dakini Valley, AZ.
landscape =
birth_name = Alyce Louise Zeoli
other_names = Catharine Burroughs
dharma_name = Ahkon Norbu Lhamo
birth_date = October 12, 1949
birth_place = Brooklyn, NY
death_date =
death_place =
nationality = U.S.A.
denomination = Tibetan Buddhism
school = Vajrayana Nyingma
lineage = Palyul
title =
workplace = Poolesville, Maryland
education =
occupation = Lama
teacher = HH Drubwang Pedma Norbu Rinpoche
reincarnation_of = Genyenma Ahkon Lhamo
predecessor =
successor =
student =
spouse =
partner =
children =
website =

Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo (October 12, 1949 -; born Alyce Louise Zeoli) is an enthroned tulku within the Palyul lineage of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. In the late 1980’s, she gained international attention as the first Western woman to be named a reincarnate lama. cite news | url = | title = U.S. Woman Is Named Reborn Buddhist Saint | first = William K. | last = Stevens | publisher = New York Times | date = 1988-10-26 | accessdate = 2008-07-26 ] She continues to serve as Spiritual Director for Kunzang Odsal Palyul Changchub Choling, a Buddhist center in Poolesville, Maryland, which includes one of the largest communities of Western monks and nuns in North America. She went on to found a center in Sedona, Arizona, U.S.A., [Kunzang Palyul Chöling [] ] and Comboyne, NSW, Australia. [Tibet in Australia [] ] Jetsunma has been described by her own teachers, as well as many other Tibetan Buddhist lamas who have visited her temple, as a dakini or female wisdom being, and is thus viewed in that way by her students. [Zangpo, Ven. Tsering Lama Jampal. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", Snow Lion Publications, pg 186] Questions have occasionally come up, however, in the non-Buddhist press [Sherrill, Martha. "The Buddha From Brooklyn", Random House 2000, pg 352] and, according to allegations by visiting monks [Sherrill. "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 348] , her own teachersBlythe, Will. "Bad Karma", Mirabella Magazine, 1998, pg 110-113 dubious] about her lifestyle, and the temple’s financial history.Blythe, pg 110]

Buddhist recognitions

His Holiness the Third Drubwang Padma Norbu (“Penor”) Rinpoche, 11th Throneholder of Palyul Monastery, former Supreme Head of the Nyingma tradition, described as “a rather unassailable figure in Tibetan Buddhism,” [Sherrill. "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 7] officially recognized Jetsunma in 1987 as the tulku of Genyenma Ahkon Lhamo during her visit to his Namdroling Monastery in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India ["American-born Woman Tulku Enthroned," "Vajradhatu Sun," October/November 1988] . As is customary, Penor Rinpoche sought confirmation of his recognition before announcing it. He received it from both His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche (1910-91), the previous Supreme Head of the Nyingma tradition who was on a teaching visit to Namdroling at the time, and the most senior Palyul tulku, the Second Dzongnang Jampal Lodro Rinpoche (d. 8/87). ["Statement by H.H. Penor Rinpoche Regarding the Recognition of Steven Seagal as a Reincarnation of the Treasure Revealer Chungdrag Dorje of Palyul Monastery" [] ]

The first Genyenma Ahkon Lhamo, a cave-dwelling meditator “recognized as a primordial wisdom dakini,” [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 186] was one of the main disciples of Terton Migyur Dorje (1645-67) [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 186] and sister of Rigdzin Kunzang Sherab, Migyur Dorje’s Dharma heir [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 62] and the First Throneholder of Palyul Monastery (founded 1665). [8] She is remembered both as being instrumental in the founding of Palyul (now one of the Nyingma’s “Six Mother Monasteries” [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 9] and for leaving an extraordinary relic. During the cremation of her body, her "kapala" (top half of the skull) is said to have flown three kilometers and come to rest at the foot of the teaching throne of her brother. Found to be miraculously embossed the sacred syllable "AH" [I would like to include a photo of this] , the kapala became “one of the most treasured relics at Palyul monastery.” [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 186]

Penor Rinpoche has recounted how, as a young tulku in Tibet (he was recognized a brought to Palyul Monastery in 1936, at the age of four) [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 121] , inspired by seeing the skull relic, he made prayers to find Ahkon Lhamo’s incarnation [Zangpo. "A Garland of Immortal Wish-fulfilling Trees: The Palyul Tradition of the Nyingmapa", pg 186] [Sherrill. "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 135] . Though most of the kapala relic was pulverized into dust during the Cultural Revolution phase of China’s occupation of Tibet, one Tibetan man managed to save the silver dollar-size piece on which the syllable “AH” appears. Penor Rinpoche acquired it from him on a return trip to Tibet in 1987. He had it preserved in a crystal lotus and presented it to Jetsunma just prior to the occasion of her enthronement ceremony at KPC in 1988. [ Mackenzie, Vicki. "Reborn in the West" Marlowe & Company 1996 1st ed, pg 76 ] The relic remains at KPC and is displayed on auspicious days (see image at right).

From June to September 1988, Penor Rinpoche was in residence at KPC in Poolesville to transmit all of the teachings contained in the Rinchen Terdzod (“Treasury of Precious Termas”), Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye’s massive 19th c. compilation of all of the extant revelations of Guru Padmasambhava’s teaching cycles known as terma. This was the first time that these teachings had ever been conferred in a Western country. ["Rinchen Terzod Empowerments," "Snow Lion Newsletter," Spring 1988] According to Penor Rinpoche’s [explanation at the time [] ] , there is a point toward the end of the Rinchen Terdzod transmissions, during the conferral of the Vajrapani empowerment from Rigdzin Godem’s Jangter (“Northern Treasures”) cycle, where it is customary to perform enthronement of tulkus. Thus, on September 24, 1988, Penor Rinpoche conducted this ceremony for Jetsunma as the tulku of Genyenma Ahkon Lhamo. Jetsunma considers Penor Rinpoche to be her root guru, along with [Ven. Gyatrul Rinpoche [] ] , Spiritual Director of Yeshe Nyingpo based in Ashland, Oregon, who is recognized as an incarnation of the First Ahkon Lhamo’s brother, Rigdzin Kunzang Sherab.

Among the more than 100 tulkus Penor Rinpoche has recognized [cite Penor Rinpoche’s statement] , the only other Westerner was Steven Seagal. Penor Rinpoche announced at Namdroling Monastery in India in February, 1997, that Seagal was an incarnation of the 17th c. Palyul terton Chungdrag Dorje. Because of Seagal’s international renown as an action movie star, the announcement sparked numerous derisive articles in the mainstream US press and called into question both of Penor Rinpoche's American tulkus. [Pico Iyer, "The Price of Faith," "Tricycle: The Buddhist Review", Summer 200, pg 86] [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 375] [Tom O'Neill, "Hollywood Goes Tibet," "Us Magazine", January 1998, pg 77] [Will Blythe, "Mr. Popular," "Outside Magazine", November 1997, pg 118] [Nancy Griffin, "The Buddha from Another Planet," "Esquire", October 1997, pg 60] Penor Rinpoche subsequently released an extensive public explanation ["Statement by H.H. Penor Rinpoche Regarding the Recognition of Steven Seagal as a Reincarnation of the Treasure Revealer Chungdrag Dorje of Palyul Monastery" [] ] describing the Tibetan tradition of tulku recognition in general, Seagal’s recognition specifically, and delineating the difference in meaning between the recognition of a tulku (Seagal’s case), in which he or she “does not take on any formal responsibilities at the time,” and the following step of enthronement (Jetsunma’s case), which “formally invests the tulku with the responsibility of furthering the activities associated with their particular tulku lineage.”

A further recognition of Jetsunma occurred in 1994, when Terton Orgyen Kusum Lingpa indicated in a long life prayer he composed that Jetsunma was an incarnation of Lhacham Mandarava, the Indian princess of Zahor and one of the consorts of Padmasambhava, a tantric master who helped establish the Buddha's teaching in Tibet. [Sherrill, Martha. "The Buddha from Poolesville," "Washington Post", Apr 16, 2000] [Johnson, Allie. "Trouble in Shangri-La," "Kansas City - News", Apr 22, 2004] In 1996, she traveled to India and visited many of the places where Mandarava was known to have practiced. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 313] Inspired by the recognition, several of Jetsunma’s students sought out and found a copy of Mandarava’s middle-length spiritual biography, revealed as a terma in the 17th c. by Samten Lingpa, at the U.S. Library of Congress. They then sponsored the first English translation of the text, published as "The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava" in 1998. [ Chonam, Lama and Khandro, Sangye. "The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava, The Indian Consort of Padmasambhava" Wisdom Publications 1998, Translator's Preface,pg x ] . Jetsunma’s connection with Mandarava was further reinforced in a long life prayer composed for her in 2004 by His Holiness Dorje Lopen Ngawang Tenzin Rinpoche, one of the most highly respected lamas in Bhutan. [His Holiness Ngawang Tenzin Rinpoche [] ]


Early years

Zeoli was born in Canarsie, Brooklyn on October 12, 1949, to an Austrian/Dutch Jewish mother and Italian father and attended the Dutch Reform Church as a youth.Mackenzie, pg 59] Mackenzie, pg 59 ] She left an abusive home life at seventeen and moved south, marrying Pat Mulloy. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 38-40]

She studied with a New Age teacher named Jim Gore and gave channeled psychic readings at the Black Mountain Light Center in North Carolina. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 44] Blythe, pg 111 dubious ] Zeoli says she began a meditative practice and independent spiritual training, culminating in a spiritual experience at age 30.

In 1980, she met Michael Burroughs, a graduate student in religions at the University of Virginia. She and Mulloy separated in 1981. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 49]

Zeoli moved with Burroughs and her son Christopher to Kensington, Maryland. She married Michael in 1983 and changed her name to Catharine Burroughs. Together they formed the Center For Discovery and New Life beginning with former members from the Black Mountain Light Center. She channeled the prophet Jeremiah,Blythe, pg 111] Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 54] a being called Santu, as well as "a being called Andor who claimed to be head of the Intergalactic Council." [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 91] [Pico Iyer, "The Price of Faith," "Tricycle: The Buddhist Review", Summer 200, pg 81] Her group quickly expanded. She taught a version of Jim Gore's Light Expansion Prayer and the group began a 24-hour prayer vigil in the basement of their Kensington homeSherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 55] inspired by her experiences when she searched for a place to pray and found locked doors.

Meeting Penor Rinpoche

In 1984, the Burroughs met Kunzang, a student of H. H. Penor Rinpoche, who was selling rugs to support Namdroling monastery.Blythe, pg 111] The students sponsored seventy Namdroling monks.Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 55] A few months later, H. H. Penor Rinpoche stayed with the Burroughs on his first visit to the US and gave the Bodhisattva Vow to her and her students. ["What is Enlightenment" magazine, Fall-Winter 1999] [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 58] Rinpoche visited a meditation and prayer center operated by the Burroughs, which was in fact nonsectarian rather than Buddhist.

Thereafter she continued to channel the prophet Jeremiah, but the channelled teachings took on a more Buddhist flavor,Blythe, pg 111] Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 54] gradually shifting terms such as "Christ consciousness" to "Buddha consciousness" between 1984 and 1987. According to the temple spokesman, the former New Age students were surprised to discover that they were now Buddhist.Blythe, pg 111]


In 1985, the Center for Discovery and New Life formed a corporation and purchased an antebellum style mansion in Poolesville, Maryland. They purchased numerous large crystals [ [ Crystals at Jetsunma's center in Maryland] ] weighing hundreds of pounds and held a three-day retreat to bring in Universal Spirit and reinstituted the 24 hour prayer vigil at the new location. [ [ Kunzang Palyul Chöling] , Feb 16, 2007] Already overextended with their new mortgage, the crystals required the temple to refinance, driving it into the red. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 146]

Participants have maintained two-hour prayer shifts.cite news | url = | publisher = Washington Post | title = For 20 Years, an Unbroken Chain of Prayer | date = 2005-09-08 | page = GZ05 | first = Julie | last = Rasicot | accessdate = 2008-07-28 ] [Iyer, pg 84] The vigil is dedicated to the end of suffering and has remained largely unbroken. [Sherrill, Martha. "Tough Town, Sad Times. So Why Are These People Smiling?" "The Washington Post", May 17, 1995] In 1999, Kunzang Palyul Choling began another 24 hour prayer vigil shortly after Alyce established the Sedona, Arizona location.

In 1996, Jetsunma's vision for Kunzang Palyul Choling was to create a place for pilgrimage with a hospice, school for children, a monastery and a tantric college for higher education in the Buddha's teachings. [Mackenzie, pg 87] However, in the sixteen years of KPC's existence from 1985-2001, none of these had materialized.Fact|date=September 2008



In 1996, Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo was arrested for a strange assault on two monastics in front of over thirty students who were invited to watch. She instructed that they be served snacks.Blythe, pg 113] [Iyer, pg 80] Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 344] The Maryland state's attorney's office confirmed her 1996 arrest for the assault.Blythe, pg 113] [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 239] The assault was widely criticized in the press as it was out of accord with Buddhism's non-violent image, and lent credence to many former members'Blythe, pg 113] and detractors' [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 353] accusations that Kunzang Palyul Choling is a cult. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 349] Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 344] Blythe, pg 113]


When Jetsunma and her students were interviewed for Marlowe's "Reborn in the West", prior to KPC at her Center for Discovery and New Life organization's inception, Jetsunma's material life was deteriorating quickly with a short supply of money and comfort. She lived in a one room place with crates for furniture while working in a department store as her husband searched for work. Despite her not wanting to be paid for teaching, her students started the organization to pay for classes from her. [Mackenzie, pg 66-67 ]

As reported in Random House's "The Buddha From Brooklyn", initially Jetsunma had a $24,000 yearly stipend. After Michael left, it increased to $36,000, [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 229] in addition to two houses, a yearly beach trip, and other gifts.Blythe, pg 112] According to Kunzang Palyul Choling's former CPA, students also paid the her salary self-employment taxes, covered her health insurance, and paid for her swimming pool cleaning costs.Blythe, pg 112] At that time, her salary increased to $100,000 a year, one-half of KPC's operating budget.Blythe, pg 112] Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 241] [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 236] This caused the organization to run at a serious deficit.Blythe, pg 112] According to one of her monks who was their finance manager, the temple was perpetually on the brink of collapse and foreclosure.Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 241] In a Mirabella article, her former CPA expressed concern over Jetsunma profiting from a 501(c)3 non-profit organization.Blythe, pg 112]

Students empty their savings and retirement accounts and run deeply into debt to pay her salary. [Sherrill, pg 242] One student donated $200,000 for a monastic college but the money instead was used to fund Ladyworks, the now-defunct hair product business of which Jetsunma was the sole shareholder. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 352]

Failed Monastery

In 1990, Jetsunma announced ambitious plans to build a monastery for 500 monks and nuns on 65 acres of land purchased by KPC. Sixteen monks and nuns were temporarily housed in a retreat center until the monastery could be built. As reported by Mirabella magazine, by 1992, Jetsunma asked that the ordained give her the retreat center to be renovated into a house for herself.Blythe, pg 112] No monastery was ever built.

Jetsunma does not financially support her monks and nuns, but instead, her ordained sangha support her financially. Her monks and nuns were asked to pay $300 a month rent for their lodgings as well as tithe to the temple and to the Lama Support Fund, which in almost all cases requires them to work outside full-time jobs.Blythe, pg 112] Working allowed the KPC monks and nuns little time for spiritual practice.Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 79] In 1995 the KPC monks and nuns were asked to sign legal forms releasing KPC from any responsibility to take care of them in sickness or old age. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 260] This was unheard of in Buddhism, as most Buddhist lamas use the money they receive to support their monks and nuns, and Jetsunma's own teachers live frugally. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 263] Penor Rinpoche wrote Jetsunma a letter in 1996 instructing that she not call herself a Buddha and make her monks and nuns her first priority.Blythe, pg 113]


In 1991, Jetsunma separated from Michael Burroughs. [Iyer, pg 80, 84] In 1992, when her divorce was finalized, she hosted a controversial divorce party where she and her students created an effigy of Michael, stabbed it with knives, threw it into the driveway, and ran over it in their cars, perplexing and horrifying the Tibetans in attendance.Blythe, pg 113] [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 244] Following her separation she had a series of consorts [Iyer, pg 80, 84] , first a woman who was her personal trainer, [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 211] and then a devoted student and construction worker in his mid 20s. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 228] In 1993 she married a 23 year old musician who helped her start Sky Dancer, a new age Buddhist rock band with whom she recorded "Invocation" (see below). [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 239] As described in Random House's "The Buddha From Brooklyn", the musician was not considered devoted enough and Alyce called a meeting to publicly vilify him, issuing a statement via her attendant that he had to be "broken like a wild mustang." [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 277] Following their separation, in 1996 she approached a married long-term student who opted not to be her consort as it would be confusing to his children. She wrote the poem "War Cry" [Sherrill, pg 297] (below) in response and advised him to separate from his wife. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 317]

Publicity surrounding the treatment of her consorts raised a question in the Buddhist press: whether consorts are fortunate and spiritually blessed by their guru's attentions or if this represents exploitation and abuse of the teacher's authority. [Iyer, pg 79, 83]


Jetsunma has also written Buddhist poetry, such as this excerpt from her poem "War Cry": [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 294-297.]

Bitch,I have seen you.I have heard your voice.I have smelt your smell.I have livedAnd died with youI know your name...Samsara.Bitch,whore,Whatever garment you wearI will know you.Your smile is no seductionTo meI know you.You will appearIn lovely forms,Seductive, caressing, singing songsFilled with promises.It is then I will appearFar more beautiful than youAdorned with garmentsOf pure aspirationOf pure bliss.From my mouth will comeThe ambrosia of Dharma....


* "Invocation", 1992, ISBN 9-991-33545-5
* "Revolution of Compassion", 2007, ISBN 9-991-55428-9
* "Delog", 2007, ISBN 9-991-55430-0
* "Ellinwood Ranch Blues", 2008, ASIN B0018BA2TO

Related organizations


* [ Palyul Productions] - records Jetsunma's teachings with the intent to preserve and disseminate Palyul teachings.
* [ Buddhist Relief] - a disaster relief organization established in response to the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans. The organization is currently focused on supporting the efforts in Burma as a result of military action against monastics.

* Tara's Babies - an animal sanctuary founded in 2005 to rescue animals abandoned during the Hurricane Katrina evacuation. [Arizona Republic, October 5, 2005] Initially caring for 130 dogs, the sanctuary is set in convert|148|acre|km2 of former ranch land nestled in the three-million acre (12,000 km²) Tonto National Forest near Payson, Arizona.

* Garuda Aviary - rescues macaws and many other neglected and abused parrots, based in Poolesville, Maryland [Montgomery Gazette, November 28, 2007] .
* [ Blinded By View] - produces Jetsunma's music.


* Ladyworks - A hair care product line sold in The Sharper Image with Jetsunma as the sole shareholder. In 1996 Ladyworks created a million-dollar infomercial for the products featuring Jetsunma.Blythe, pg 112] [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 182] The company stopped all operations in 1997, $650,000 in debt. [Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 375]

* Skydancer - Jetsunma sang the lead vocal in Skydancer, a New Age rock group founded by Jetsunma's former husband and musician. [Brace, Eric. "Limelight," "Washington Post", Feb 23, 1992] The temple produced an expensive CD which did not sell well. Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 79] After a few performances the band disbanded.

* Tara Studios - Tara Studios, producing small Buddhist statues, was founded in 1991 with the hopes to financially support KPC's monks and nuns. After one nun invested her remaining trust fund of $80,000, the company floundered and is now defunct.Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 74] Sherrill, "The Buddha From Brooklyn", pg 78]

* Chocolate Passion - A dessert company formed in 1992 also in hopes to financially support KPC's monks and nuns. [Sugarman, Carole. "The Chocolate Passion Of Poolesville's Buddhists," "Washington Post", Oct 21, 1992] After some initial good press the company was abandoned.

* Ani's Ink - A small typesetting business predicted to be a "sure thing" by Jetsunma left behind a long standing debt. ]

ee also

* Esoteric transmission
* Ngagma
* Rinpoche
* Tantra techniques (Vajrayana)
* Vajrayogini
* Yidam



* Brace, Eric. "Limelight," Washington Post, Feb 23, 1992
* Blythe, Will. "Bad Karma," "Mirabella Magazine", 1998.
* Cohen, Andrew. "What's the Relationship Between Emptiness and Beautiful Nails?", ""What is Enlightenment Magazine", Fall/Winter 1990
* Iyer, Pico. "The Price of Faith," "Tricycle: The Buddhist Review", Summer 2000.
* MacKenzie, Vicki. "Reborn in the West". Da Capo Press, 1996, ISBN 0-7225-3443-4
* Oldenburg, Dan. "The Unexpected Incarnation In Poolesville, Buddhists Exalt Catherine Burroughs" in The Washington Post, Sep 26, 1988
* Sherrill, Martha. "Women of the Year," Ms Magazine, January/February 1989 Vol. XVII Nos. 7 & 8.
* Sherrill, Martha. "Tough Town, Sad Times. So Why Are These People Smiling?" The Washington Post, May 17, 1995
* Sherrill, Martha. "Where the Lamas Let Their Hair Down Peace, Love & Squirting Cameras At a Joyful Buddhist Barbecue," Washington Post, Jun 5, 1995
* Sherrill, Martha. "The Buddha from Poolesville," Washington Post, Apr 16, 2000
* Sherrill, Martha. "The Buddha from Brooklyn", Random House 2000, ISBN 0-679-45275-3

Further reading

* Coleman, James William. "The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient Tradition", Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-195-15241-7
* Jetsunma Ahkön Norbu Lhamo. "The Practice of Generosity", publisher unknown, Ahkön Norbu Lhamo, 1991.
* Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo. "Stabilizing the Mind". Palyul Press, 2005, ISBN 1-4116-6102-8
* Khandro, Sangye. "The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava: The Indian Consort of Padmasambhava", Wisdom Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-861-71144-0; ISBN 978-0861711444
* Morreale, Don. "The Complete Guide to Buddhist America", Shambhala, 1998. ISBN 1570622701
* Miller, Timothy. "America's Alternative Religions", State University of New York Press, 1995. ISBN 0-791-42398-0
* Paine, Jeffrey. "Re-Enchantment: Tibetan Buddhism Comes To The West", publisher unknown, 2004. ISBN 0-393-32626-8
* Prebish, Charles S. and Kenneth Kenichi Tanaka. "The Faces of Buddhism in America", University of California Press, 1998. ISBN 0-520-21301-7
* Zangpo, Ven. Tsering Lama Jamapal, translated by Sangye Khandro. "A Garden of Immortal Wish-Fulfilling Trees: the Palyul Tradition of Nyingmapa", Snow Lion Publications, 1988. ISBN 0-937938-64-5
* "The Truth: About the Five Primary Religions and the Seven Rules of Any Good Religion". The Oracle Institute, 2005. ISBN 0-977-39290-2
* "Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America". Edited by Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, Indiana University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-253-34688-6

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