- Lambert II of Spoleto
Lambert II (c. 880 –
15 October 898) was the King of Italyfrom 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino from his father's death in 894. He was the son of Guy III of Spoletoand Ageltrude, born in San Rufino.
Lambert was crowned King in May 891 at
Paviaand joint Emperor alongside his father on 30 April892 at Ravennaby a reluctant Pope Formosus. He and his father signed a pact with the pontiff confirming the Donation of Pepinand subsequent Carolingiangifts to the papacy. In 893, however, Formosus sent an embassy to Regensburgto request Arnulf of Carinthialiberate Italy and come to Rometo be crowned. Arnulf sent his son Zwentiboldwith a Bavarian army to join with Berengar of Friuli. They defeated Guy, but were bought off and left in autumn. Arnulf then personally led an army across the Alpsearly in 894. He conquered all of the territory north of the Po River, but went no further before Guy died suddenly in late autumn. Lambert became sole king and emperor, as well as succeeded his father to the Duchy of Spoleto. Still young though, he was left under the regencyof his mother, a staunch anti-German. While Berengar occupied Pavia, Lambert and Ageltrude travelled to Rome to receive papal confirmation of his imperial title, but Formosus desired to crown Arnulf and was imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo.
Lambert was preoccupied in thwarting the attempts of both Arnulf of Carinthia and Berengar of Friuli to take Italy for themeselves during his reign. Early on,
Adalbert II of Tuscanyrallied to his cause, menacing Berengar in Pavia. By January 895, Lambert could take up residence in the royal capital. In that same year, his cousin Guy IV conquered the Principality of Beneventofrom the Byzantines. Despite the urging of Fulk of Rheimson his behalf, Lambert found himself abandoned by the pope, who feared the increased power of the Spoletan house. In September, an embassy arrived in Regensburg beseeching Arnulf's aid. In October, Arnulf undertook his second campaign into Italy. He crossed the Alps quickly and took Pavia, but then he continued slowly, [Lambert refused to offer battle.] garnering support among the nobility of Tuscany. Even Adalbert joined him. Finding Rome locked against him and held by Ageltrude, he took the city by force on 21 February 896, freeing the pope. Arnulf was there crowned King and Emperor by Formosus, who declared Lambert deposed. Arnulf marched on Spoleto, where Ageltrude had fled to Lambert, but he suffered a strokeand had to call of the campaign. That same year, Formosus died, leaving Lambert once again in power.
After Arnulf returned to Germany and until his death, Lambert and his supporters, most powerful in the northeast and the centre of the peninsula, were in complete control of Italy. He retook Pavia and decapitated
Maginulf, Count of Milan, who had joined Arnulf. In October and November, he met Berengar outside of Pavia and the two reached an agreement whereby they parcelled the kingdom out between them, Berengar keeping the realm between the Adda and the Po and Lambert the rest. They shared Bergamo. This was a confirmation of the "status quo" of 889. Lambert also pledged to marry Gisela, Berengar's daughter. It was this partitioning which caused the later chronicler Liutprand of Cremonato remark that the Italians always suffered under two monarchs.
In early 897, Lambert journeyed to Rome with Ageltrude and Guy to receive reconfirmation of his imperial title. The vengeful Lambert and Ageltrude also persuaded
Pope Stephen VI, elected by their influence, to put the corpse of Formosus on trial for various crimes. The body, stripped of its papal robes and mutilated, was thrown into the river Tiberafter the " Cadaver Synod." In January 898, John IX rehabilitated Formosus against their will. Lambert convened a diet at Ravenna in February. Seventy bishops met and confirmed the pact of 891, the invalidity of Arnulf's coronation, and the validity of Lambert's imperial title. They legitimised the election of John IX. They also solved the Formosan question and confirmed his rehabilitation. Most significantly for Lambert, however, they reaffirmed the "Constitutio Romana" of Lothair I(824), which required the imperial presence at papal elections.
Lambert hereafter governed with the church and continued the policy of his father of "renovatio regni Francorum": renewal of the Frankish kingdom. He was able to issue
capitulariesin the Frankish fashion as his father had done. In fact, he was the last ruler to do so. In 898, he legislated against the exploitation of the services owed by " arimanni" to create benefices for vassals. The "Lex Romana Utinensis" was composed at his court.
However, Lambert still had Berengar of Friuli and the rebellious Adalbert of Tuscany to face. In 898, the latter marched on Pavia. The emperor, who had been hunting near
Marengo, south of Milan, was given word and surprised and defeated his rival at Borgo San Donnino, taking him prisoner to Pavia. On his return to Marengo however, he was killed, either by assassination (by Hugh, son of Maginulf) [Liutprand is reserved about this theory of assassination.] or by falling from his horse. He was buried in Piacenza. [Liutprand remembered him as an "elegans iuvenis" and "vir severus": "an elegant youth and a stern man". His epitaph (in Latin elegiac couplets) is cquote|Sanguine præcipuō Francōrum germinis ortusLambertus fuit hīc Caesar in Urbe potēnsAlter erat Cōnstantīnus, Theodōsius alterEt prīnceps pācis clārus amōre nimis — "Born with the distinguished blood of the stock of the Franks, Lambert was here Emperor, holding power in the City (of Rome); He was another Constantine, another Theodosius, and a prince of peace, excessively renowned with love." ] He was succeeded in Spoleto by Guy IV while the " regnum Italicum" and the " imperium Romanum" were thrown into chaos, contested by multiple candidates. Within days, Berengar had taken Pavia.
*Caravale, Mario (ed). "Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani: LXIII Labroca – Laterza".
*Wickham, Chris. "Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400-1000". MacMillan Press: 1981.
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