- Sikh diaspora
The Sikh diaspora is a relatively recent term used to describe the phenomenon of
Sikhmigration from the traditional Sikh heartland of the Punjab. The starting point of the diaspora is commonly accepted to have begun after the fall of the Sikh Empirein 1849 and the Empire's subsequent annexation into the British Raj. The most famous personification of the Sikh diaspora was the first, Maharajah Duleep Singh, the last 'King' of the Sikhs who was coerced into a lifetime exile by the British Raj. Since Duleep Singh's exile, the rate of Sikh migration from the Punjab has remained high; however the destination for Sikh migrants has changed during the ensuing 150 years. The development of the Sikh diaspora concept has given diaspora Sikhs a conscious political and cultural identity, which forms a reference point for their 'Sikhism'. This phenomena has seen a corresponding development in scientific research literature that explores Sikh diaspora issues.
Numbering approximately 23 million worldwide, the Sikhs are adherents to the fifth largest organized religion in the world, Sikhism. The Sikhs make up 0.39% [CIA Factbook [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html] ] of the world population of which approximately 83% live in India. Of the Indian Sikh community 14.6 million, i.e. 76% of all Indian Sikhs, live in the northern Indian State of
Punjab (India), where they form a majority 59.9% of the population. Substantial communities of Sikhs, i.e. greater than 200,000, live in the Indian States/Union territories of Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttarakhandand Jammu and Kashmir[Break down of Indian Sikh population by Indian States/Union territories [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ] .
Historical migration patterns
The Sikhs as a political entity, distinct from other Indian traditions, can be said to have begun with the martyrdom of the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji in 1606, Sikh distinction was further enhanced by the establishment of the Sikh 'Pure' brotherhood or
Khalsa(ਖਲਸਾ), by Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1699 [BBC History of Sikhiam - The Khalsa [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/sikhism/history/history_1.shtml] ] . This gives the Sikhs, as an organized political grouping, a relatively recent history of around 400 years. Migrations of Sikhs during the era of the Gurus were limited to the boundaries of modern day India and Pakistan, and in particular restricted to the Sikh tribal heartland of the Punjab Region. The development of the Sikh Confederacyand the development of the Sikh Empire(1716-1849), led to Sikhs migrating to conquered parts of their empire such as Ladakhand Peshawar. However these migrations were limited, transitory and unsustained, depending on the Empire's fluctuating boundaries. During the time of the Sikh Empire, there was a net cultural immigration, with Napoleonicand British influences vying for the 'ear' of the then Sikh Maharajah Ranjit Singh[Maharaja Ranjit Singh: Lord of the Five Rivers (French Sources of Indian History Series) by Jean-Marie Lafont. Pub. by Oxford University Press (2002). Pp. 23-29. ISBN 0195661117] . With respect to the Sikh diaspora, the most important political aspect of this period was the historical establishment of a Sikh homeland; the idea of a powerful Sikh state was a reality.
Annexation of the Punjab
Sikh migration from the Punjab began in earnest in the second half of the 19th century when the
British Rajhad successfully completed its annexation of the Punjab. The pivotal action in the British annexation was the lifetime exile of the then eleven year old Marahrajah, Duleep Singh, thus making Singh the first (although unwilling) member of the Sikh diaspora.
Although a largely secular figure who did little for the Sikh body politic, Axel (2001) ["A review of The Nation's Tortured Body: Violence, Representation, and the Formation of the Sikh "Diaspora" by Brian Keith Axel . Pub. by Duke University Press (2001).] argues that Duleep Singh's exile has had a major impact on the Sikh diaspora psyche. Axel(2001) ["A review of The Nation's Tortured Body: Violence, Representation, and the Formation of the Sikh "Diaspora" by Brian Keith Axel . Pub. by Duke University Press (2001). Pp. 48-65] says that
Duleep Singhis the archetypal 'tragic hero' figure in Sikh culture, "a King without a Kingdom, a Sikh separated from his people"; the contrast between Duleep Singhand his strong ruler father, Ranjit Singh, makes Duleep's exile even more 'galling' for the Sikhs and results in a strong sense of communal injustice, which is a later trait in the diaspora's development.
Having annexed the
Sikh Kingdom, the British Rajpreferentially recruited Sikhs in the Indian Civil Serviceand, in particular, the British Indian Army, which led to migration of Sikhs to different parts of British India and the British Empire[Diffusion of Sikhism and recent migration patterns of Sikhs in India by A. K. Dutt1 and S. Devgun. Pub. GeoJournal Volume 1, Number 5 / September,1977.Pp 81-89. Available online [http://www.springerlink.com/content/p726g4t656018333/] ] . Semiskilled artisans were also transported from the Punjab to British East Africato help in the building of railways.
The 20th century
The Sikhs made tremendous contributions to Punjab from 1857 to 1947. Sikhs founded the city of
Rawalpindi. Sikh agricultural and entrepreneurial skills brought prosperity to Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Jhelum, Multan, Sargodha, Gujrat, Amritsar, Jullundar. Lahore, the capital of undivided Punjab, had thriving Sikh neighborhoods.
The era of peace and prosperity turned into a nightmare in 1947. The partition of Punjab between India and
Pakistanwas a seminal tragedy for Sikhs, unlike for the more numerous Hindus and Muslims of the sub-continent. Islamic fanatics launched attacks on Sikh communities in villages and cities across West Punjab. Initially Sikhs thought the attacks were temporary but their intensity increased after Pakistan's independence on August 14, 1947 when the Pakistani police and military failed to protect the Sikh community. Sikhs were raped, killed, robbed, forcibly converted and deported en masse. The Sikh communities were practically wiped out from Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan, Sialkot, Lyallpur, Jhelum, Gujrat, Sargodha, Sheikhupuraand other districts of West Punjab. The birthplace of Sikhism, Nankana Sahib, was split away in West Punjab. Millions of Sikhs fled to freedom and safety in East Punjab in India.
In 1960s and beyond many Sikhs migrated to the UK and North America in search of economic opportunities. Some of the Sikhs who had settled in eastern Africa were expelled by Ugandan dictator
Idi Aminin 1972 [Sikhism. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 12 Sept. 2007 [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-253167] ] . Sikhs are primarily an agrarian community and with the pressures of having only a limited amount of land, high birth rates and the desire to make a better living, the male offspring of Sikh farmers were encouraged to migrate to foreign countries. Subsequently the main 'push' factor for Sikh migration has been economic with significant Sikh communities now being found in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Malaysia, East Africa, Australasiaand Thailand.
Agitation for a homeland
Axel (2001) ["A review of The Nation's Tortured Body: Violence, Representation, and the Formation of the Sikh "Diaspora" by Brian Keith Axel . Pub. by Duke University Press (2001).] argues that the Sikh diaspora community, having established themselves in foreign countries begin to fetishize the past and nurture idealized designs for their 'lost' Sikh empire. This come into fruition to a certain degree with the establishment of Indian Punjab in 1966 as a Sikh majority state. However Tatla(1998) [The Sikh Diaspora Search for Statehood by Darshan Singh Tatla(1998). Pp. 16-33. Pub. by University of Washington Press. 10-295-97715-9] argues that the marginalization and sense of grievance that Indian Sikhs were facing due to
Indira Gandhi's heavy handed tactics, were amplified in the Sikh diaspora. Subsequently, the Sikh diaspora, especially in Canada [The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver: Three Generations Amid Tradition, Modernity, and Multiculturalism by Kamala Elizabeth Nayar. Pub. by University of Toronto Press (April 8, 2004) Pp.34-57. ISBN-10: 0802086314] and the UK become willing suppliers of logistical and financial support when the organic agitation for a separate Sikh nation, Khalistan, began in the late 1970s. The actions taken by the Indian government to counter the Sikh separatist movement, via 1984's Operation Bluestar, had a seismic effect on the Sikh diaspora. Axel (2001) ["A review of The Nation's Tortured Body: Violence, Representation, and the Formation of the Sikh "Diaspora" by Brian Keith Axel . Pp.68 - 72. Pub. by Duke University Press (2001).] argues that the desecration of the Sikh's holiest shrine, Harimander Sahib, and the following anti-Sikh riotsin which thousands of Sikhs were massacred; led to a resurgence in Sikh religiosity and a strengthening of ties with their Sikh brethren in Punjab. Diaspora Sikhs felt betrayed by India, and the events of 1984 defined their Sikhism and underlined a distinct commonality shared with other diaspora Sikhs. Mark Tully [BBC Archives: After Blue Star [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/171_afterbluestar/] ] describes 1984s Operation Bluestaras the Sikh's ' 9/11', this was certainly the case for diaspora Sikhs, who in the main could only watch on in horror as the events of 1984 played out on TV.
In 1971 Dr Jagit Singh Chohan, an ex-minister in a short-lived government of
Akalidissidents, saw an alignment of like-minded Sikhs. Chohan placed a half-page advertisement in The New York Times of 12 October 1971, making several claims about Punjab as a Sikh homeland. However Chohan won little sympathy from ordinary Sikhscite book
coauthors =Gurharpal Singh and Arvind-Pal Mandair
title =Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity
publisher =Curzon Press
location =Richmond, Surrey
pages =Pp. 142-161
isbn = 0-7007-1387-1] .
Tatla summarises the change in Sikh diaspora community leaders post 1984 a being a "painful transition from a self-confident community with haughty discourse, to the self-defensive strategies of a vulnerable minority". Organisations such as the
International Sikh Youth Federation(ISYF), the Babbar Khalsaand the Council of Khalistan emerged within the diaspora, and these agencies rallied against "Hindu imperialism" and lobbied to join the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization UNPOaligning the Sikh cause with other ethnic groups seeking freedom, citing cases of Jews, Palestinians, Kurds, Armenians, Kashmiris and Sri Lankan Tamils.
Axel (2001) ["A review of The Nation's Tortured Body: Violence, Representation, and the Formation of the Sikh "Diaspora" by Brian Keith Axel . Pub. by Duke University Press (2001).] argues that the history of the Sikh diaspora, its psyche of grievance and the violence inflicted on it, means that the notion of the Sikh diaspora as a community today inevitably converges on the notion of Khalistan. In addition to this, Axel points out the 'nightmare' scenario facing the Sikh diaspora; the Indian state 'demands' the 'Unity-in-Diversity' model of 'rashtriya ekta' (national integration) which Axel contends is signified by "the denial of difference through surrender, assimilation and integration".
Since the formation of the Khalsa, the Sikhs have defined themselves though their 'separateness' and have differentiated themselves philosophically and physically from other Indian religious communities, thus the process of 'rashtriya ekta' is a threat to Sikhi itself. Any 'weakening' or 'dilution' Sikhi in the Punjab, is doubly painful for the Sikh diaspora for it means a corresponding weakness in Khalistan, which, both real and imaginary, epitomizes the Sikh diasporic place today.
ikh Identity today
Whilst the rate of Sikh migration from the Punjab has remained high, traditional patterns of Sikh migration, that favored English speaking countries, particularly the United Kingdom has changed in the past decade due to factors such as stricter immigration procedures. Moliner(2006) [Sikh Migration Patterns - 'Workshop on Indian Migration' at Laboratoire d’Anthropologie Urbaine/CNRS (14/15th of November 2006) Abstract 'Sikhs in France' by Christine MOLINER (PhD Student, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) [http://www.ivry.cnrs.fr/lau/IMG/rtf/Abstracts.rtf] ] states that as a consequence of the 'fact' that Sikh migration to the UK had "become virtually impossible since the late 1970s", Sikh migration patterns altered to continental Europe. Italy has now emerged as a fast-growing area for Sikh migration [Sikh Storia e immigrazione - The Sikhs: History and Immigration by R. Cipriani(2006). Pub. in International Sociology.2006; 21: 474-476 Available on [http://iss.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/21/3/474] ] , with
Reggio Emiliaand the Vicenzaprovince being areas of significant Sikh population clusters [Now, Sikhs do a Canada in Italy [http://www.nriinternet.com/EUROPE/ITALY/2004/111604Gurdwara.htm] ] . The Italian Sikhs are generally involved in the areas of agriculture, agro-processing, machine tools and horticulture[Report of 'NRI' News in ITALY [http://www.nriinternet.com/EUROPE/ITALY/2007/0701_Visa_office_in_Chandigarh.htm] ] . Canada has maintained a liberal immigration policy, and the Sikh community there is the second largest in proportion to the country's population after only India, and about 2.5 times the size of the American Sikh community.
In the post-9/11 era, the Sikh diaspora in Europe and North America stand out as a visible minority often confused with radical Islamic groups because of their turbans. There have been numerous hate crimes targeted at Sikhs. France banned turban-wearing Sikh students from pubclily-funded schools, as part of a broader policy originally intended to restric Muslim head-scarves. Western security think-tanks quote the Air India bombing to justify profiling of Sikh travellers at airports. The soft influences of popular culture and the need for fitting in with peers is driving many young Sikhs to shed Khalsa symbols such as the turban and beard. Some second generation Sikhs growing up in the West do not have proficiency in the Punjabi language. On the other hand small groups of Westerners have converted to Sikhism.Fact|date=July 2008 There are now Sikh temples scattered across Europe, North America, Australia and Malaysia. The combination of these factors creates a new and more complex Sikh identity that may slowly emerge in the 21st century.
globalisationprogresses and India's & Punjab's economy continues to expand [ Punjab becomes India's top market for Mercedes Benz [http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Punjab_goes_on_Mercedes_overdrive/articleshow/2871713.cms] ] , the question is whether the Sikh diaspora's focus will shift from inward-looking identity and Khalistan issues to outword-looking global trade and homeland investment like the successful Jewish and Chinese diasporas.
Sikhism by country
* The Sikh Diaspora Search for Statehood by Darshan Singh Tatla (1998) University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295977159
* Contesting Khalistan the Sikh diaspora and the politics of separatism /Gunawardena, Therese Suhashini. , Jan 2001 Thesis (Ph. D.). Pub. by University of Texas at Austin, 2001.
* Twice Versus Direct Migrants: East African Sikh Settlers in Britain by Parminder Bhachu. Pub. by Clark University (07 Apr 1990).
* Relational Embodiments of a Sikh Diaspora by Anjali Gera Roy Pub. by Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India (2001). Available on http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v7is1/gera.htm.
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