Inferior alveolar nerve

Inferior alveolar nerve

Infobox Nerve
Name = PAGENAME
Latin = nervus alveolaris inferior
GraySubject = 200
GrayPage = 896



Caption = Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. (Inferior alveolar visible at center left.)



Caption2 = Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve. (Inferior alveolar labeled at bottom right.)
Innervates = dental alveolus
BranchFrom = mandibular nerve
BranchTo = mylohyoid, dental, incisive, and mental
MeshName =
MeshNumber =
DorlandsPre = n_05
DorlandsSuf = 12565154
The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V).

Path

Before traversing the mandibular foramen, it first gives off the nerve to the mylohyoid, a motor nerve supplying the mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric. It then enters the mandible via the mandibular foramen.

While in the mandibular canal within the mandible, it supplies the mandibular (lower) teeth with sensory branches that form into the inferior dental plexus and give off small gingival and dental nerves to the teeth.

Anteriorly, the nerve gives off the mental nerve at about the level of the mandibular 2nd premolars, which exits the mandible via the mental foramen (supplying sensory branches to the chin and lower lip).

The inferior alveolar nerve continues to innervate the mandibular canines and incisors.

Anesthesia

The inferior alveolar nerve is a common target for anesthesia during dental procedures involving the mandibular teeth.

Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual nerve (supplying the tongue). This is why the numbing of the lower jaw during dental procedures causes the patient to lose sensation in:
* their teeth (inferior alveolar nerve block)
* their lower lip and chin (mental nerve block)
* and their tongue (lingual nerve block).

Administration of anesthetic solution more superior to the mandibular foramen (usually in the vicinity of the ascending ramus of the mandible), will cause a more profound anesthesia on that particular side of the mandible, also involving the buccal nerve, which branches off the inferior alveolar nerve superior to the mandibular foramen and supplies sensation to the buccal side of the mandible. This is often referred to as the V3 block or the Gow-Gates block.cite journal |author=Kafalias MC, Gow-Gates GA, Saliba GJ |title=The Gow-Gates technique for mandibular block anesthesia. A discussion and a mathematical analysis |journal=Anesth Prog |volume=34 |issue=4 |pages=142–9 |year=1987 |pmid=3481514 |pmc=2186284 |doi= |url=]


=Additional

References

External links

*
*
* (NormanAnatomyFig|mandibularnerve)
* (NormanAnatomyFig|V)


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  • inferior alveolar nerve — noun : a branch of the mandibular division of the fifth cranial nerve that passes into the mandibular canal to the teeth of the lower jaw …   Useful english dictionary

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