Infobox City
official_name = Birjand
native_name =
nickname = Storm city
motto =

imagesize =
image_caption =


mapsize =
map_caption =

pushpin_label_position =
pushpin_map_caption =
pushpin_mapsize =
subdivision_type =
subdivision_name =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name =
established_title =
established_date = 2004
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 =
area_total_sq_mi =
area_land_km2 =
area_land_sq_mi =
area_water_km2 =
area_water_sq_mi =
area_water_percent =
area_urban_km2 =
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_metro_km2 =
area_metro_sq_mi =
population_as_of = official census in 2006
population_note =
population_total = 157848 (County:240894),(Province:600568)
population_metro =
population_urban =
population_density_km2 = 3697
population_density_sq_mi =
timezone =
utc_offset =
timezone_DST =
utc_offset_DST =
latd = 32 | latm = 52 | lats = | latNS = N
longd = 59 | longm = 12 | longs = | longEW = E
elevation_m = 1491
elevation_ft =
website = []
footnotes = Prefix code: +98 Iran - (0)561 Birjand
Birjand (Persian: بیرجند) is the east iranian provincial capital of South Khorasan and the centre of the county Birjand resp. Quhestan, known for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. [] The city of Birjand had a population of 157848 people at the time of the last official census in 2006 [] .

The city has a dry climate with significant difference between day and night temperatures. It is a fast growing city, thus becoming a major centre in the East of Iran after Mashad and Zahedan.


The first citation of the city in the historical literature returns to the famous book "Mojem Alboldan", by the Yaqut Homavi (13th century) which introduces the Birjand as the most beautiful town in the Quhestan. Before this Birjand had been probably not as big and important as a municipality but a rural community. However, the Birjand geographical area has had its historical and political importance long before emergence of the city of Birjand. Many citations of the region are available in the original literature like "Ehya -ol- Molook" of the once important localities in the area. Apart from literature, the oldest evidence on the history of the region is the ancient Lakh-Mazar inscription in the Kooch village some 25 Km south east of Birjand. Numerous fine drawings and inscriptions are carved on an igneous rock surface. The inscriptions include pictograms as well as Arsacid Pahlavi, Sasanian Pahlavi, Arabic and Birjand has emerged as the centre of Quhestan, following the decline of historical city of Qaen in the Safavid period. Since then the Alam clan had ruled the region till the end of Qajar dynasty. During the semi-autonomous ruling of Alam clan, Great Britain and Russia established consular branches in Birjand, because of the important geographical location of the region in the vicinity of the Indian subcontinent. Amir Shokat Ul-Molk Alam, the father of the Asadollah Alam(once prime minister of Iran) was still ruling the Quhestan's subprovince Qhaenat into the Pahlavi era. And the last tribal leader of Birjand Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi was related with the Alam clan and the emperor Reza Shah Pahlavi. However Birjand lost its geopolitical importance following the emergence of Reza Shah Pahlavi and his policy of central government.The entire Quhestan region then became a part of the modern Khorasan province. The local people, however, started a movement to become an independent province at the middle of the second Pahlavi period. The move resulted after about forty years and Quhestan and particularly Birjand regained its historical importance in 2004 after official division of Khorasan to three smaller provinces by the government of Islamic Republic of Iran.


It is said that the Shokatiyeh School in Birjand together with Darolfonoon in Tehran were the first public schools in Iran in the mid 1800s. Ever since then, Birjand has amassed an abundance of institutions of higher education and become an important location for research and development.

The city contains such higher educational institutions as:

*University of Birjand []
*Birjand University of Medical Sciences []
*Islamic Azad University of Birjnad []
*Payame Noor University
*Iran University of Industries and Mines
*University of Applied Science and Technology
*Academy of Tarbiat-e Moalem
*Academy of Amuzesh-e Aly
*Academy of Amuzesh-e Modiriat Dolaty


The city is served by Birjand Airport.

Notables from Birjand

*Abd al-Ali al-Birjandi Prominent Astronomer of the 16th Century
*Amir Shokat Ul-Molk Alam, Governor of Quhestan at the end of Qajar Dynasty
*Asadollah Alam, Prime Minister of Iran during Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi period
*Hakim Nezari Quhestani
*Ibn Hessam Khusfi
*Kazem Motamednejad Communication scientist
*Mohammad Hassan Ganji scientist of Geography
*Mohammad Hossain Ayati
*Sayyed Hassan Tahami
*Mohammad Ibrahim Ayati
*Mohammad Ismail Rezvani scientist of History
*Mohammad Reza Hafeznia
*Sayyed Mohammad Farzan (*1894 near Birjand) Scientist
*Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi (†1984 in Birjand) last tribal leader of Birjand at the beginning of Pahlavi Dynasty
*Sima Bina

See also

*Furg citadel
*Zadok Village
*Moud, the international famous district of Birjand


*Governor: Seyyed Solat Mortasavi
*Crown prince: Marcel Kasemi
*Mayor: Mohsen Sadeh


External links

* [ Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organisation General Office]
* [ University of Birjand]
* [ Birjand University of Medical Sciences]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Birjand — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Birjand Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Birjand — 32° 53′ N 59° 13′ E / 32.88, 59.22 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Birjand — Birdschand DEC …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bīrjand — ▪ Iran       town, eastern Iran, built on low hills in a barren valley 4,774 feet (1,455 metres) above sea level. The town, divided by the Khūsf River (usually dry), was formerly the seat of semi independent rulers and a caravan centre; it has in …   Universalium

  • Birjand — Original name in latin Brjand Name in other language Birdjand, Birdzhend, Birjand, Brjand, byrjnd, shhrstan byrjnd, Бирдженд, Бранд State code IR Continent/City Asia/Tehran longitude 32.86628 latitude 59.22114 altitude 1459 Population 196982 Date …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Birjand County — ( fa. شهرستان بیرجند) is a county in South Khorasan province, Iran. The capital of the county is Birjand.References* اطلس گیتاشناسی استان‌های ایران [Atlas Gitashenasi Ostanhai Iran] ( [… …   Wikipedia

  • Birjand University of Medical Sciences — Infobox University name=Birjand University of Medical Sciences native name=دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی بيرجند established=1985 type=Public city=Birjand state=South Khorasan Province country=Iran president = Morad Hashem Zehi, M.D.… …   Wikipedia

  • Birjand Airport — Infobox Airport name = Birjand Airport nativename = nativename a = nativename r = image width = caption = IATA = XBJ ICAO = OIMB type = Public owner = operator = city served = location = Birjand elevation f = 4,952 elevation m = 1,509 coordinates …   Wikipedia

  • Birjand — Birjạnd   [ dʒ ], Stadt in Ostiran, Birdjand …   Universal-Lexikon

  • University of Birjand — Infobox University name=University of Birjand دانشگاه بیرجند motto= established=1975 type=Public city=Birjand state=South Khorasan Province country=Iran president=Dr. Miri undergrad=5,000 postgrad=? postgrad label=graduate faculty= campus=Urban… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”