- Fujiwara no Fuhito
Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原不比等: 659–720) was a powerful member of the imperial court of
Japanduring the Asuka and Nara periods. Second son of Fujiwara no Kamatari(or, according to one theory, of Emperor Tenji), he had sons by two women, and those sons were the founders of the four principal lineages of the Fujiwara clan: the South, North, Ceremonial, and Capital lineages. Also, he had four daughters by two other women. three by Kamohime, one by Tachibana no Michiyo. One daughter by Kamohime became Emperor Mommu's wife Miyako, who in turn gave birth to Emperor Shōmu. The daughter by Michiyo became the empress of Shōmu.
During the reign of
Emperor Mommu, the government ordered that only the descendants of Fuhito could bear the Fujiwara surname and was able to be appointed in the Office of Daijokan, the center of administratives.
Fuhito was 13 years old when the
Jinshin incidentoccurred. His father Kamatari had been a strong supporter of Emperor Tenji, but Kamatari had already died and Fuhito was too young to be appointed a governmental officer, so he wasn't involved in this political conflict. In 688 he appeared first as a courtier.
In 697 Prince Karu, the son of
Prince Kusakabeand therefore grandson of Emperor Temmuand Empress Jitō, was appointed to the crown prince. Fuhito supported this appointment strongly and got the favor of Empress Jitō. Since then his promotion in the court began. In 701 Prince Obito, later the emperor Shōmu was born by Miyako. He succeeded to make Obito the crown prince and made his other daughter a wife of Obito. Until then only a royal lady could be promoted to the empress, but he succeeded his daughter the empress of Obito, the emperor Shōmu. It was the first empress who didn't derive from the imperial household.
He moved Yamashina-dera, the Buddhist temple which was the main temple his clan supported, to Nara and renamed it
Kōfuku-ji. After his death, Kasuga shrine, the main temple of the Fujiwara clan was settled near to Kofuku-ji in 768.
He played a role in the establishment of the state law,
ritsuryo, in Japan. He participated in the edition called Taihō Ritsuryō. He also joined its revision, the Yōrō ritsuryō but before its finish, he died in the summer of 720. When he died, he was appointed Udaijin, one of ministers.
After his death the court honored him with two titles 文忠公(Bunchu Kō) and 淡海公(Omi Kō, Lord of Omi) and with the office of Daijodaijin, the highest office of the court.
He had the sons, Fujiwara no Muchimaro,
Fujiwara no Fusasaki(681 – 737), Fujiwara no Umakai and Fujiwara no Maro. His son Fusasaki would become the ancestor of the regent line of the Fujiwara clan.
Wives and Children
*Soga no "Shōshi"(Masako), daughter of Soga no Murajiko
*Kamo no Hime, daughter of Kamo no Emishi
**Miyako (?-754), married to
**Nagako, married to Prince Nagaya
*Fujiwara no Ioe-no-iratsume, half sister of Fuhito (dowager of
*Agatainukai-no-Tachimana no Michiyo (?-733)
Empress Kōmyō) (701-760), Empress of Emperor Shōmu
**Tabino(Tahino), married to
Tachibana no Moroe
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