- Feline hepatic lipidosis
Feline hepatic lipidosis, also known as feline
fatty liversyndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver diseaseof cats. [http://www.healthypet.com/library_view.aspx?ID=42&sid=2 Welcome to Healthypet.com! ] ] The disease officially has no known cause, though obesity is known to increase the risk. [http://www.gcvs.com/imaging/ultrasound/lipidosis.htm Feline Hepatic Lipidosis (Fatty Liver Syndrome) ] ] The disease begins when the cat stops eating from a loss of appetite, forcing the liver to convert body fat into usable energy. If this process continues for too long, fat builds up in the cells of the liver, and the disease has officially onset. Prognosis varies depending on the stage of the disease, with both a high recovery and mortality rate at different stages. The disease is reversible through intense feeding. [ [http://cats.about.com/cs/healthissues/a/fatty_liver.htm Feline Hepatic Lipidosis - Fatty Liver Disease in Cats ] ]
Obesityis known to increase the risk of Feline Hepatic Lipidosis, however, there is no known official cause of the disease. Severe anorexiausually precedes onset of the disease, but it is unknown why the animal stops eating in the first place. When the cat has no energy from eating, the liver must metabolize fat deposits in the body into usable energy to sustain life. The cat liver however is poor at metabolizing fat, causing a build-up of fat in the cells of the liver, leading to fatty liver. At this point the disease can be diagnosed.
Anorexia always precedes liver disease, with the cat refusing to intake enough food for weeks or months. This is amplified by frequent vomiting when the cat does choose to eat. A lack of appetite causes the cat to refuse any food, even after it has purged its system of all stomach contents. Severe weight loss proceeds as the liver keeps the cat alive off body fat, causing a yellowing of the skin (jaundice). When the cat runs out of fat to process, severe muscle wasting takes place as the body converts protein into energy. Eventually the body cannot give the brain enough energy to function properly and the cat dies from malnutrition. In addition, an overworked liver can eventually fail causing total system collapse.
Feline Hepatic Lipidosis shares similar symptoms to other problems, including
liver disease, renal failure, feline leukemia, Feline infectious peritonitisand some cancers. Diagnosis requires tests that target the liver to make an accurate diagnosis. Jaundice is highly indicative of the disease. Blood tests and a liver biopsywill confirm the presence of the disease.
Untreated, the disease has a mortality rate upwards of 90%. Cats treated in the early stages can have a recovery rate of 80-90%. [ [http://cats.about.com/cs/healthissues/a/fatty_liver_2.htm Fatty Liver Syndrom - Ways to encourage anorexic cats to eat ] ] Left untreated, the cats usually die from severe
malnutritionor complications from liver failure. Treatment usually involves aggressive feeding through one of several methods.
Cats can have a
feeding tubeinserted by a veterinarianso that the owner can feed the cat a liquid diet several times a day. They can be force-fed through the mouth with a syringe, but is not recommended by vets as it carries a danger of choking the animal. [http://maxshouse.com/Feline_Hepatic_Lipidosis.htm Feline Hepatic Lipidosis ] ] If the cat stops vomiting and regains its appetite, it can be fed in a food dish normally. The key is aggressive feeding so the body stops converting fat in the liver. The cat liverhas a high regeneration rate and the disease will eventually reverse assuming that irreparable damage has not been done to the liver.
The best method to combat Feline Hepatic Lipidosis is prevention and early detection. Obesity increases the chances of onset. In addition, if a cat stops eating for 1-2 days, it should be taken to a vet immediately. The longer the disease goes untreated, the higher the mortality rate.
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