Amplification (psychology)

Amplification (psychology)

Amplification is to amplify physical symptoms based on psychological factors such as anxiety or depression: "somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. What may be a minor 'twinge' or mild 'sorenes' to the stoic, is a severe, consuming pain to the amplifier."cite journal |author=Barsky AJ, Goodson JD, Lane RS, Cleary PD |title=The amplification of somatic symptoms |journal=Psychosomatic medicine |volume=50 |issue=5 |pages=510–9 |year=1988 |pmid=3186894 |doi=]

Psychological state has been documented to effect the course of upper respiratory tract infection,cite journal |author=IMBODEN JB, CANTER A, CLUFF LE |title=Convalescence from influenza. A study of the psychological and clinical determinants |journal=Arch. Intern. Med. |volume=108 |issue= |pages=393–9 |year=1961 |pmid=13717585 |doi=] cite journal |author=Lane RS, Barsky AJ, Goodson JD |title=Discomfort and disability in upper respiratory tract infection |journal=Journal of general internal medicine : official journal of the Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine |volume=3 |issue=6 |pages=540–6 |year=1988 |pmid=3230456 |doi=10.1007/BF02596095] post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome,cite journal |author=Thabane M, Kottachchi DT, Marshall JK |title=Systematic review and meta-analysis: the incidence and prognosis of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome |journal=Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. |volume=26 |issue=4 |pages=535–44 |year=2007 |pmid=17661757 |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03399.x] and musculoskeletal pain.cite journal |author=Mallen CD, Peat G, Thomas E, Dunn KM, Croft PR |title=Prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review |journal=The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners |volume=57 |issue=541 |pages=655–61 |year=2007 |pmid=17688762 |doi=]

Amplification is not recognized by the American Psychiatric Association.

The Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SAS) has been validated to measure amplification. The scale contains four items measured with a 5 item Likert scale:
# Sudden loud noises really disturb me
# I'm very uncomfortable when I'm in a place that is too hot or too cold
# I can't stand pain as well as most people can
# I find I'm often aware of various things happening in my body
# I'm quick to sense the hunger contractions in my stomach

Amplification is related to alexithymia. Amplification may also contribute to multiple-drug intolerance (if the adverse effects that are reported are non-specific).cite journal |author=Davies SJ, Jackson PR, Ramsay LE, Ghahramani P |title=Drug intolerance due to nonspecific adverse effects related to psychiatric morbidity in hypertensive patients |journal=Arch. Intern. Med. |volume=163 |issue=5 |pages=592–600 |year=2003 |pmid=12622606 |doi=] It is unclear whether amplification is related to observations that Type A personality trait may be associated with delayed recovery after organic illness.cite journal |author=Jenkins CD, Jono RT, Stanton BA |title=Predicting completeness of symptom relief after major heart surgery |journal=Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.) |volume=22 |issue=2 |pages=45–57 |year=1996 |pmid=8879456 |doi=] cite journal |author=Fields KB, Delaney M, Hinkle JS |title=A prospective study of type A behavior and running injuries |journal=The Journal of family practice |volume=30 |issue=4 |pages=425–9 |year=1990 |pmid=2324695 |doi=]


ee also

* alexithymia
* somatisation

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