Kerma

Kerma

Kerma (now known as Doukki Gel -- a Nubian term which can be roughly translated as "red mound") was the capital city of the Kingdom of Kerma, in present day Egypt and Sudan, an archaeological site as old as 5,000 years. It became a real Nubian state during the 3nd millennium BC. Kerma was about convert|435|mi|km away from Aswan.

Human populations settled in the Kerma basin at a very early date, as witnessed by several Mesolithic and Neolithic sites. The earliest traces of a human presence in the region date back some eight hundred thousands years. From 7500 BC onward the remains become more significant: semi-buried dwellings, various objects and tools, and graves. [Bonnet, Charles, et. al. "The Nubian Pharaohs: Black Kings on the Nile", AUC Press (February 22, 2007) - ISBN 977416010X] The Neolithic phrase, from the late sixth to the fourth millennium BC, is much better known and allows us to follow the stages of the spread of agriculture and the domestication of cattle in this period. Around 3000 BC a town grew up not far from the Neolithic dwellings place.

The Nubian Town and Its Necropolis

In the past thirty years, archaeologist Charles Bonnet systematic excavation of Nubian Kerma has presented a picture of a capital city in the third and second millennia BCE. The evolution of the residential area is highly complex, yet it is possible to identify social differences and a marked hierarchy. Furthermore, we might speculate about the general nature of this town, which seems to correspond above all to a protected zone reserved for an elite population. Whereas elsewhere in the kingdom we find towns that centralized agricultural products and villages that we situated alongside fields of crops, here in the capital we find spacious homes inhabited by dignitaries who monitored the trade in merchandise arriving from far-off lands, and who supervised shipments dispatched from administrative buildings.

In the Old Kerma (2450-2050 BCE), religious buildings and special workshops for preparing offerings were built using trunks of acacia trees, and roofed with palm fibers. These plant-based materials, once encased in hardened clay, could be painted in lively colors. The round huts were usually made of wood and clay. This method of construction, inspired by traditions dating back to prehistory, is still being used today.

Around 2200-2000 BCE, the builders began using unfired mud-bricks. Later, the use of fired bricks constituted a significant change, because such material remained almost unknown elsewhere along the Nile Valley until the Late Period.

In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues. Magnificently sculpted, and in an excellent state of preservation, they portrayed five pharaonic rulers, including Taharqa and Tantamani, the last two pharaohs of the 'Nubian' Dynasty, when Egypt was ruled by kings from the lands of modern-day Sudan. For over half a century, the Nubian pharaohs governed a combined kingdom of Egypt and Nubia, with an empire stretching from the Delta to the upper reaches of the Nile. [ [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/870/heritage.htm Digging into Africa's past] ]

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  • Kerma — es el nombre moderno dado al que fue el centro de un reino de Nubia, probablemente llamado por los egipcios Kash (de donde derivó Kus o Kush) al sur de la segunda catarata del Nilo, puede que hasta la cuarta. Algunos sitúan Iam entre la quinta y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • kerma — [ kɛrma ] n. m. • v. 1980; mot angl., acronyme de Kinetic Energy Released in Material « énergie cinétique dégagée dans la matière » ♦ Phys. nucl. Grandeur caractérisant la dose de rayonnement ionisant absorbée par unité de masse d un matériau. Le …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • KERMA — ist eine physikalische Größe der Strahlenphysik. Der Begriff ist eine Abkürzung für die Wörter Kinetic Energy released per unit mass oder auch Kinetic Energy released in matter. Die Kerma ist die auf Sekundärteilchen der ersten Generation… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • KERMA — Le Kerma (Kinetic Energy Release per unit Mass) correspond à l énergie perdue par un faisceau de photon et transférée à la matière, quel que soit le devenir des particules mises en mouvement lors de ces transferts. L unité du KERMA est le gray… …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Kerma — statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. kerma vok. Kerma, f rus. керма, f pranc. kerma, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • kerma — statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. kerma vok. Kerma, f rus. керма, f pranc. kerma, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • KERMA — Abreviatura de kinetic energy released in the medium, cantidad que describe la transferencia de energía desde un fotón a un medio en forma de cociente de la energía transferida por unidad de masa en cada punto de interacción …   Diccionario médico

  • KERMA — DEFINICIJA krat. fiz. veličina energije koju ionizirajuće zračenje predaje tvari (jedinica Gy, grej) ETIMOLOGIJA engl. Kinetic Energy Released per unit Mass …   Hrvatski jezični portal

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