- Eastern Theater of Eelam War IV
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict = Eastern Theater of Eelam War IV
partof = the
Eelam War IV
caption = Old Tamil woman, displaced by the Eastern Province floods, being carried to a safe place by four Sri Lanka Army personals.
July 21 2006– July 11, 2007
result = Sri Lankan Military victory
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
commander1 = Major General Parakrama Pannipitiya
commander2 = Swarnam
strength1 = 20,000 (approx.)
strength2 = 3,000 (approx.)
casualties2 =The "Eastern Theater of Eelam War IV", the warfare started in the Eastern province of Sri Lanka on
July 21 2006, when the LTTE cut off the water supply to the rice fields in the Mavil aru area in the eastern Trincomaleedistrict. The government military claimed the total control of the Eastern province after capturing the Thoppigala (Baron's cap) on July 11 2007after nearly a year of fighting [ [http://lrrp.wordpress.com/category/thoppigala-victory-severe-blow-to-ltte-terrorism/ world-press report] ] .
The major battles took place at
Sampoor, Vakarai, Kangikadaichchi Aru, Kokkadichloaiand Thoppigala(Baron's cap). The military and civilian deaths are considerably low on both sides, and the government forces captured much military hardware from the LTTE during the conflict. The civilians managed to flee the combat zones, even though the LTTE tried to prevent this, and this reduced civilian casualties, while swelling the number of internally displaced people (IDP). The world health organization (WHO) estimated ~200,300 IDPs, and claims that significant progress has occurred in resettling them [http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/EHA_SLR_SitRep20_27Jun_07.pdf situation report from UN relief groups, June 2007] ]
The LTTE has vowed to attack Sri Lanka's military and economic targets across the country to retaliate the capture of the Eastern province from them. This was stated by the LTTE political-wing leader
S.P. Thamilchelvan, in a statement to Associated Presson July 12 2007at Killinochchiin northern Sri Lanka.
Beginning of the war
A new crisis leading to the first large-scale fighting since signing of the ceasefire occurred when the LTTE closed the
sluice gates of the Mavil Aru(Mavil Oya) reservoiron July 21and cut the water supplyto 15,000 villages in government controlled areas.cite news | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5249884.stm | title = Sri Lanka forces attack reservoir|work =|publisher = BBC News|date=2006-08-06|] After the initial negotiations by the SLMM to open the gates failed, the Air Force attacked LTTE positions on July 26, and ground troops began an operation to open the gates.cite news | url = http://www.dailymirror.lk/2006/07/27/front/6.asp | title = Air Force jets hit LTTE targets|work =Sunil Jayasiri|publisher = The Daily Mirror| date =2006-07-27|] government spokesman, stated that the government remained committed to the cease-fire. [ [http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2006/12/05/lankanews.html Sri Lanka Newspapers - Sri Lanka News Updates around the clock ] ] . Likewise, the LTTE also claimed that they were committed to the ceasefire [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5237114.stm BBC NEWS | South Asia | 'Muslims flee' Sri Lanka fighting ] ]
The sluice gates were eventually reopened on
August 8, with conflicting reports as to who actually opened them. Initially, the SLMM claimed that they managed to persuade the LTTE to lift the waterway blockade conditionally. slmm attempt] However a government spokesman said that "utilities can not be used as bargaining tools" by the rebelscite news |url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5249884.stm|title = Sri Lanka forces attack reservoir |work = |publisher = BBC News |date = August 6 2006] and the government forces launched fresh attacks on LTTE positions around the reservoir. These attacks prompted condemnation from SLMM Chief of Staff, who stated "(The government does) have the information that the LTTE has made this offer,"... "It is quite obvious they are not interested in water. They are interested in something else." As the battle warmed up, the LTTE claimed that they opened the sluice gates "on humanitarian grounds" although this was disputed by military correspondents, who stated that the water began flowing immediately after the security forces carried out a precise bombing of the Mavil Oya anicut."The Sunday Times Situation Report", [http://sundaytimes.lk/060813/index.html Eelam war IV rages on several fronts] ] Eventually, following heavy fighting with the rebels, government troops gained full control of the Mavil Oya reservoir on August 15. "Iqbal Athas, Janes Defence Weekly," [http://www.janes.com/defence/news/jdw/jdw060817_1_n.shtml Full-scale fighting flares in Sri Lanka] ]
Battle of Muttur and Sampur
The Sri Lankan military gained control the Sampur town of eastern Trincomalee district on September 04, 2006, where the area used by
LTTEas an artillery launching pad to attack Trincomalee port. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5311620.stm|title=Sri Lankan troops take key town|work=BBC News|date=2006-09-04] The SLA military offensive began on August 2006 and the area was under LTTE control for years. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5315192.stm|title=Army 'consolidates' Sampur gains|work=BBC News|date=2006-09-05] President Mahinda Rajapaksa announced capturing of Sampur as he addressed the 55th annual conference of the ruling SLFP. [cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2006/09/060904_sampoor_defeat.shtml|title=LTTE admits defeat in Sampoor
The battle of
Sampoor, close to Muttur, lasted nearly a month. The SLA gained control of the area on September 4 2006after heavy fighting. [cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/highlights/story/2006/09/060908_sampur_elmo.shtml|title=Sampur 'under our control'|work=BBC News|date=2006-09-08] ]
Battle of Vakarai
The Sri Lankan military announced that the capture of Vakarai, a coastal town of eastern
Batticaloadistrict on January 19 2007, the military has accused the LTTEof using civilians in the Vakarai hospital as a human shield and also using the hospital premises as an artillery launching pad. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6278349.stm|title=Sri Lanka troops 'take key town'|work=BBC News|date=2007-01-19] [cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2007/01/070119_vakarai_civilians.shtml|title='Last civilian' leaves Vakarai|work=BBC News|date=2007-01-19] [cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2007/01/070119_vakaraitaken.shtml|title=Government forces take Vakarai|work=BBC News|date=2007-01-19]
The SLA's battle to take
Vakarai(Vaakare) lasted nearly 3 months from October 30 2006to January 15 2007. Vakarai (Vaakare) is a coastal city in the Batticaloa(Madakalapuva) district where the LTTE had clamped their own civil administration and police for some time.cite web | title = Sri Lanka captures rebel town as thousands flee | publisher = Reuters | url = http://uk.reuters.com/article/homepageCrisis/idUKCOL86071._CH_.242020070119 | format =html | accessdate = 2007-01-19]
As per Sri Lankan military sources, the military operation launched to gain the area of
Vakaraifrom LTTE was conducted in two phases. The first phase was to facilitate the movement of civilians into the area under the Sri Lankan army (SLA). The Deep Penetration Unit(DPU) of the SLA infiltrated the area under the LTTE, and launched surprise attacks on them. This tactic caused the LTTE to engage with the SLA instead of holding the civilians (hostages) from fleeing into the SLA control zone.cite web | title = Sri Lanka troops hunt rebels as refugees flood camps | publisher = Reuters | url = http://www.reuters.com/article/homepageCrisis/idUSCOL229984._CH_.2400 | format =html | accessdate = 2007-01-20]
The phase-II started on
December 4 2006where the SLA troops advanced in three fronts from Trikonamadu(Thrikonamaduva), Kirimichchiya(Kirimaetiyaava), Kadjuwatteand cleared off 15 km into the Trikonamadu jungle. During this action, the LTTE targets at Kaddamuravikulam , Karuvappanchenai and Madurankernikulam were destroyed. The second advance of SLA started on December 9 2006from Mahindapura Southwards and captured LTTE camps around Echchalanpaththuwa area. The 3rd and 4th advances of SLA started on December 10 2006from Trikonamadu and Kadjuwatta onwards.cite web | title = Sri Lanka's displaced face uncertainty | publisher = BBC News| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6287887.stm | format =html | accessdate = 2007-01-22]
Battle of Ampara-Kanjikudichchi Aru
The military operation to consolidate the GOSL's control of
Amparaicode named as " Operation Definite Victory" took place in the Amparadistrict, in the Lahugala jungles. The Special Task Forcealso known as the STF was involved in the operation that captured the Kangikadaichchi AruLTTE military complex during the first week of January 2007 [ [http://lrrp.wordpress.com/category/kanjikudichchi-aru-offensive-enters-critical-phase/ World-press report] ]
STF troops captured around 20 LTTE camps including major bases such as Janak, Stanley and the Jeevan base. These complexes provided infrastructure for LTTE military cadres in the area [http://www.sundaytimes.lk/070121/News/113.html Sundat Times report] ] .
After capturing large infrastructure facility of the LTTE, the STF troops found a truck and a motorcycle packed with explosives. The military believed that these items were prepared for a suicide attack in Colombo. The STF also recovered large quantity of arms and ammunition, coffins, anti-personnel mines, radio receivers,
global positioning systems, Power generators, boats with name and logo of the NGO " Save the Children", tents with the logo of " UNHCR", and a fully equipped hospital named by the Tigers as Thileepan Memorial Hospital donated by a Dutch INGOnamed ZOA Refugee Care[http://www.tothecenter.com/news.php?readmore=680 World-news] ] .
Battle of Thoppigala
The dominating peak in the area is called Thoppigala (British called it "Baron's cap", tamils called it "Kudumbimalai". . It is situated near the
Batticaloa- Polonnaruwaborder close to Maduru Oyathe Sri Lankan military's largest infantry training base. The area is ~800 square kilometers, with rocky mountains (Dimbulagala - Lahugala range), dense jungles and also ancient irrigation tanks.The Sri Lankan military launched their military operation to capture the area from LTTE on April 25 2007. The full scale jungle warfare started, and the LTTE was trying to protect their last stronghold in Eastern Sri Lanka. The SLA estimated around 500-700 LTTE cadres were fighting in the area in a network of trenches and tunnels.
Capture of LTTE bases
During the period of June 8-9, 2007 Sri Lankan army captured 4 LTTE military bases at Ibbanvila, Akkarathivu , Mawadi-ode , and Veppanveli in Pankudavaella North, and Naarakmulla, South of the Thoppigala area. During the confrontation, around 30 LTTE cadres and 1 SLA personnel died. The SLA captured 06 Multi Purpose Machine Guns (MPMG), 21 T-56 assault riffles, 04 Rocket Propeller Grenade (RPG) launchers, and a large quantity of Anti Personnel (AP) mines and Ammunitions [http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2007/08/05/fea02.asp Sunday Observer] ]
On June 19, 2007 03 LTTE satellite camps East of Narakkamulla in the Thoppigala area were completely destroyed by the SLA. As per military sources around 25-30 LTTE were killed and a large quantity of anti-personnel mines (APM's) and other military equipment were captured. [http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2007/08/05/fea02.asp Sunday Observer] ]
Fierce fighting erupted between the LTTE and the SLA at the final forward defence line (FDL) of LTTE, at their Beiruit complex in Narakamulla, Thoppigala area between June 22-24, 2007. The FDL was fortified with 6 bunker lines and 3 minor camps. The LTTE did not vacate their positions due to SLA's heavy barrage of artillery and tank gun fire. Finally, around 50 SLA commando's infiltrated the LTTE bunkers and killed 30 of them. Three LTTE cadres committed suicide. This series of events turned the tide of the battle of Thoppogala against the LTTE.]
The fierce battle North of Narakamulla, in the Thoppigala area on July 06, 2007 morning, killed 6 Sri Lankan army personal including an officer called Colonel Samantha Ranathunga, and injured 7, due to heavy mortar fire by the LTTE. The Sri Lankan military retaliated with artillery and aerial bombardment to control the situation.]
Capture of Thoppigala (Baron's Cap)
After 13 years, the Sri Lankan military captured the final strong hold of
LTTEin the East, Thoppigala (Baron's Cap), on the morning of July 11 2007, nearly after a year of military action. According to the country's military history, the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), with around 20,000 soldiers attacked this area in the year 1988 but failed to capture the area (at that time LTTE lead by Colonel Karuna). In 1994 the SLA withdrew their military bases from this area.]
Comments about the battle
The opposition leader of the Sri Lanka Parliament
Ranil Wickramasinghe(RW) criticized the government for treating the capture of Thoppigala as a matter of national significance. He stated at a public gathering at Galle, the capital of southern Sri Lanka, that Thoppigala is a jungle area larger than the district of Colombo, with no other significance. However, in September 2007 the United national party (UNP) led by RW announced a change of party policy, abandoning its fedaralist policy stand "inview of the LTTE defeat in the east [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2007/09/070927_burma.shtml BBC news report] ] . This itself shows the far-reaching implications of the war in the Eastern theater.
Commemoration of the victory in east
The government of Sri Lanka commemorate the military defeat of the
LTTE, in Eastern province of the country in the morning of July 19, 2007, called "New Dawn to the East ". It took place in the country's main city of Colomboaround Independent Square where passes the military parade. There was several commemoration ceremonies organized through out the country on same day. The government suggested hoisting the country’s flag in every house and also lighting an oil lamp at auspicious time for the people who sacrificed their lives for the nation [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/6895809.stm BBC news report] ] .The ceremony start with observing the silence for the fallen heroes of the military who sacrificed their lives for the country, then hoisting the country flag. President Mahinda Rajapaksa, who had officially accepted the total government control of the area, from the commanders of the army, navy and air-force.
Mahinda Rajapaksaaddresses the nation stated, "Let us bequeath to them a land where Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims can live together and smile as the children of one mother. It is not possible to bring liberation to the Tamil people through guns, bombs and cyanide capsules. What they destroy is the future of Tamil children" [http://site114.webhost4life.com/priu/data/html/speeches/2007/address_neganahira_navodaya.htm Presidential speeches] ] .The display of the military equipment and the parade inclusive of various the military units were some of the focal points of the ceremony. The display of air-force fighter planes as the final event of the ceremony. The ceremony has to be viewed in the context of the large political and military implications of the aftermath of the LTTE defeat in the east [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2416/stories/20070824505504500.htm Report in the hindunet] ]
Murdering of prominent personnel
* The assassination of the head Priest of the
Santhiveli Pilleyar KovilRev Selliah Kurukkal Parameshwaranon February 07, 2007 in his home Batticaloa. The priest who blessed President Mahinda Rajapakseduring his visit to Vakaraifour days before his death. As per Police investigations the murderers identified themselves as LTTEand forcibly dragged him out of his house and shot him to death. The TULF leader Anandasangraee himself attributed the murder to the LTTE and strongly condemned the LTTE [ [http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2007/2/12216.html Lanka newspapers report] ] .
* Assassination of Chief Secretary of the Eastern Province Mr.
Herath Abeyweeraon July 16 2007around 18:00 hrs at his office located at Inner Harbour Road in city of Trincomalee. The Police blamed LTTEfor this assassination. He worked as the District Secretary of Ampara for more than 15 years and served the Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim people of the East with great commitment.cite web | title = Sri Lanka President vows to wrest all land from rebels | publisher = Reuters | url = http://uk.reuters.com/article/featuredCrisis/idUKCOL5670220070717 | format =html | accessdate = 2007-07-17]
Impact of war into civilian life
Because of the clashes between LTTE and the Sri Lankan army at Eastern province there were around 35,000 people of 10,000 families internally displaced from Sampoor (Muthur), Seruvilla, Verugal (Echchalampattu) and Vakarai areas. The period of heavy clashes happened from December 2006 to April 2007, many people left their homes and arrived in Sri Lankan government controlled areas..
Political situation in East
After the Sri Lankan military gain control in the eastern province the political situation within the Tamil society there, dramatically changed. The many people living in the area now internally displaced (IDP) due to the on-going war. The LTTE breakaway faction lead by former LTTE
Colonel Karunawould be more influential among the Tamil people. The political party named the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal(TMVP) opened several political offices in the area and hopes to contest in future elections.cite web | title = A date with a renegade rebel Tiger - BBC Interview with Karuna Amman | publisher = BBC News | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6524869.stm | format =html | accessdate = 2007-04-04]
The TMVP contested Batticaloa district local council election on March 10, 2008 and won all 9 councils with a high majority 70% of votes. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7288942.stm|title=Ex-Tamil Tigers win local polls|publisher=BBC News|date=2008-03-11] The party also contested in Eastern Provincial Council election May 10, 2008 under the ruling
UPFAbanner and UPFA won the election. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7394488.stm|title=Sri Lankan government wins vote|publisher=BBC News|date=2008-05-11] TMVP's current leader Sivanesathurai Chandrakanthansworn as the Chief Minister of Eastern Provincial Council on May 16, 2008. [cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2008/05/080516_pillayan_cm.shtml|title=CM appointment illegal - Hisbullah|publisher=BBC News|date=2008-05-16]
Colonel Karuna addresses his cadres during his visit to TMVP eastern military bases in February 2007 and described his vision about the ongoing crisis of the area.
Anti rebel Asian Tribute claimed that
Karunastated that, "When we left the LTTE on 03 March 2004 we decided to enter into the main stream politics of Sri Lanka. When we left the LTTE, we also gave up the policy of Separate state or Tamil Eelam. We do not believe in such a utopian politics any more. We today believe in rule of law, democracy and pluralism. Sri Lanka is our Motherland. We want to live equally with the majority Sinhalese and minority Muslims. We consider that it is our duty respect the country’s constitution and also the President and the Government of Sri Lanka".]
Sri Lankan Civil War
Eelam War IV
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfqimW3xdgg Al Jazeera's Tony Birtley's exclusive]
* [http://www.defence.lk/ Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka]
* [http://www.peaceinsrilanka.org/ GoSL Peace Secretariat]
* [http://www.ltteps.org/ LTTE Peace Secretariat]
* [http://www.slmm.lk/ Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission]
* [http://www.theacademic.org/ Lanka Academic, news site sponsored by Sri Lankan academics worldwide]
* [http://www.sangam.org/ Sangam.org]
* [http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/sri-lanka/key-texts.php Texts of key agreements in the peace process and an analysis of the process by Conciliation Resources]
* [http://www.asiafoundation.org/Locations/srilanka_publications.html Report on the Sri Lankan peace process by Asiafoundation]
* [http://www.hweb.org.uk/content/view/27/4/ hWeb - Sri Lanka’s recent history of ethnic conflict and political crisis originates from its colonial legacy]
* [http://nesohr.org/human-rights-reports/StatisticsOnCiviliansAffectedByWar.pdf?PHPSESSID=8204ff9bfa58e205f71a95c3899f8835 NorthEast Secretariat report on Human rights 1974-2004]
* [http://www.hweb.org.uk/content/view/27/4/ hWeb - Sri Lanka’s recent history of ethnic conflict originates from its colonial legacy]
* [http://www.peaceandwar-ha.blogspot.com/ Peace&War: Humanity Ashore Pictorial]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.