Flora and fauna of Madhya Pradesh

Flora and fauna of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh is often called the "Heart of India", is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal. Madhya Pradesh was originally the largest state in India until November 1, 2000 when the state of Chhattisgarh was carved out. It borders the states Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan.

Forest statistics

Madhya Pradesh is endowed with rich and diverse forest resources. Lying between lat. 21°04'N and long. 74°02' and 82°49' E, it is a reservoir of biodiversity. The geographical area of the state is 308,144 km² which constitutes 9.38% of the land area of the country. The forest area of the state is 95,221 km² constituting 31% of the geographical area of the state and 12.44% of the forest area of the country. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest, Protected Forest and Unclassified Forest", which constitute 61.7%, 37.4% and 0.9% of the forest area respectively. Per capita forest area is 2,400 m² as against the national average of 700 m²

As per the latest estimates of Forest Survey of India, published in the State of Forest Report (SFR) 2003, suggest that the total forest cover of M.P. is 76,429 sq. km., which is 24.79% of the land area - dense forest constituting 13.57% and open forest 11.22%.

One third of the state is forested and offers a unique and exciting panorama of wildlife. In the National Parks of Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Shivpuri and many others one has the rare opportunity to see the tiger, the bison and a wide variety of deer and antelope in sylvan surroundings. Nine National Parks and Twenty Five Wildlife Sanctuaries are attractive destinations on tourist map.

Forest composition

Central, eastern and southern parts of the state are rich, whereas northern and western parts are deficient in forest.Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. There are four important forest types viz. Tropical Moist, Tropical Dry, Tropical Thorn , Subtropical broadleaved Hill forests.The forest area can also be classified based on the composition of forest and terrain of the area. Based on composition, there are three important forest formations namely Teak forest , Sal forest and Miscellaneous Forests. Bamboo bearing areas are widely distributed in the state. To obviate pressure on the natural forests , plantations have been undertaken in forest and non forest areas to supplement the availability of fuel wood , small timber , fodder etc. MP lost a good amount of forest recently when Chattisgarh was carved out of it, as that region was the richest reserve of forests in MP.

Teak - "Tectona grandis" (Common Teak) is by far the most important timber species, with a wide distribution in Madhya Pradesh. It is found in following districts, namely Inore, Khandwa, Harda, Dewas, Sehore, Bhopal, Raisen, Vidisha, Betul, Hoshangaba, Chhindwara, Seoni, Balaghat, Mandla, Dindori, Shahdol, Umaria,Jabalpur, Damoh, Panna, Chhatarpur, Sagar, Satna, Rewa and Sidhi.

Sal - Sal or Sakhu ("Shorea robusta") is another most important timber species in Madhya Pradesh. It is a large evergreen tree belonging to the family dipterocarpaceae. Sal forests of Madhya Pradesh are ecologically very important as they mark the termination of the great Sal zone of the Central Indian Peninsula. Sal forests are located in the eastern part of the state while teak forests are localised in the western part. In between, there is a transition belt of mixed miscellaneous forests. There are also areas where Teak and Sal both species occur naturally mixed together forming unique ecosystem. Sal forests occupy an area of 7244 km², which is about 7.6 % of the total forest area of the state. The Sal forests are confined to the eastern part of the state in the districts Rewa, Sidhi, Umaria, Anuppur and southwards in districts Balaghat, Mandla, Dindori, and Jabalpur and occupy all ranges of Maikal and the highlands of Balaghat. Sal forests are also distributed in and around Pachmarhi in Hoshangabad and Chhindwara districts. [A.P. Dwivedi: Sal Borer Calamity, a case of M.P. and Chhatisgarh, Sai Publication Bhopal, 2005. p.7]

Mixed forests - The maximum forest cover in the state is that of mixed forests, which includes Teak "(Tectona grandis)" or Sal ("Shorea robusta") mixed with other species like saja "(Terminalia tomentosa)", bija "(Pterocarpus marsupium)", lendia "(Lagerstroemia parviflora)", haldu "(Adina cardifolia)", dhaora "(Anogeissus latifolia)", salai "(Boswellia serrata)", aonla "(Emblica officinalis)", amaltas "(Cassia fistula)", gamhar ("Gmelina arborea" etc. Dazzling white kulu "(Sterculia urens)" trees scattered around stand out conspicuously among the various hues of green. The ground is covered with maze of grasses, plants, bushes and saplings.

Bamboo - Bamboo is also found at places in Madhya Pradesh forests. Normally "Dendrocalamus strictus is the main bamboo species found overlapping with other species. It is distributed over Balaghat, Seoni, Chhindwara, Betul, Mandla and Shahdol districts.

Khair - Khair (Acacia catechu) trees are found in Jabalpur, Sagar, Damoh, Umaria, Hoshangabad, Guna, Shivpuri, Sheopur, Morena, Gwalior etc. Khar trees are used as a raw material for preparation of catechu or kattha.

NWFP - There are many important Non wood forest Products (NWFP) found in the forests eg. Tendu leaves or Bidi leaves (Diospyros melonoxylon), Sal Seed ("Shorea robusta"), Chebulic Myrobolan or Harra ("Terminalia chebula"), Gum, Chironji ("Buchanania lanzan"), flower and seeds of Mahua ("Madhuca indica") and flowers, seeds, bark & roots of various plant species. Tendu leaves, Sal seed and Gums are nationalised forest produce in Madhya Pradesh whereas the other NWFP are non-nationalised.These non-nationalised NWFP can be collected and traded freely. The collection and trade of nationalised forest produce is regulated by the state.

Medicinal plants - Medicinal trees and plants of various kind are found in abundance in the forests of Madhya Pradesh. Important ones are: "Aegle marmelos", "Azadirachta indica", "Bixa orellana", "Butea monosperma", "Asparagus racemosus", "Argemone mexicana","Buchanania lanzan", "Aloe barbadensis", "Acorus calamus", "Cassia tora", "Curculigo orchiodes", "Curcuma longa", "Embelia ribes", "Clitoria ternatea", "Mangifera indica", "Cassia fistula", "Evolvulus alsinoides", "Commiphora mukul", "Helicteres isora", "Holorrhaena antidysenterica", "Glycyrrhiza glabra", "Woodfordia fruticosa",. "Dioscorea spp", "Plumbago zeylaniea", "Terminalia bellirica", "Tamarindus indica", "Mucuna pruriens", "Pongamia pinnata", "Terminalia bellirica", "Psoralea corylifolia", "Phyllanthus embilica", "Ocimum americanum", "Rauvolfia serpentina", "Tinospora Cardifolio", "Withania somnifera", "Swertia chirayita", "Tribulus terrestres", "Chlorophytum tuberosum", "Cyprus Rotundus".

Forest growing stock

The total growing stock (volume of timber / wood) is 50,000,000 m³ valued worth Rs 2.5 lakh Crores.

Natural areas

Madhya Pradesh is home to several National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh.

There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantak, Patalkot, Bagh Caves, Bhedaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, and Tamia.

National Parks and their Fauna

There are 9 National Parks and 25 Sanctuaries spread over an area of 10,862 sq. km constituting 11.40% of the total forest area and 3.52% of the geographical area of the state. Efforts are under way to increase the Protected Area network to 15% of the forest or 5% of the geographical.

There is a network of Protected Areas representative of bio-geographical zones. Special efforts have been made towards conservation of highly endangered species in the following National Parks and sanctuaris:

*Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura national park are managed as project tiger areas.
*Sardarpur sanctuary in Dhar and Sailana are managed for conservation of kharmor or lesser florican.
*Ghatigaon sanctuary is managed for Great Indian Bustard or Son Chiriya.
*National Chambal sanctuary is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, River dolphin, smooth coated otter and a number of turtle species.
*Ken-gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger.

*Barasingha is the state animal and Dudhraj (Paradise Flycatcher) is state bird of Madhya Pradesh.

List of sanctuaries

*Kheoni (Dewas, Sehore) 122.70 km²
*Narsingharh (Rajgarh) 57. 19 km²
* Gandhi Sagar (Mandsaur) 368.62 km²
*Bori (Hoshangabad) 518.00 km²
*Pachmarhi (Hoshangabad) 461.85 km²
*Dubri (Sidhi) 364.69 km²
*Singhori (Raisen) 287.91 km²
*Noradehi (Sagar) 1034.52 km²
*Pench (Seoni, Chhindwara) 449.39 km²
* National Chambal Gharial (Morena) 320.00 km²
*Ken Ghariyal (Chhatarpur, Panna) 45.00 km²
*Sone Ghariyal (Sidhi) 41.80 km²
*Kuno-Palpur (Morena) 345.00 km²
*Karera (Shivpuri) 202.21 km²
*Ghatigaon (Gwalior) 512.00 km²
*Bagdara (Sidhi) 478.90 km²
*Fensaellite (Mandla) 110.74 km²
*Panpatha (Shahdol) 245.84 km²
*Sardarpur Florican (Dhar) 348.12 km²
*Sailana Florican (Ratlam) 12.96 km²
*Ratapani (Raisen) 688.79 km²
*Ralamandal (Indore)
*Orchha (Tikamgarh)
*V. Durgawati (Damoh)

The Tribals and Forests

The tribal population is an integral part of the biodiversity of the forests since ages. A large number of ethnic aboriginal tribes are there who live in and around forests in Madhya Pradesh. The main tribal groups are:

**Rai Bhaina
**Kadh Bhaina
**Abujh Mariya,
**Dandami Mariya,



* [http://www.forest.mp.gov.in/ Madhya Pradesh Forest Department]
* [http://www.mfpfederation.com/content/about_us.html Minor Forest Produce Federation Madhya Pradesh]
* Madhya Pradesh A to Z, Madhya Pradesh State Tourism Development Corporation, Cross Section Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 1994

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Madhya Pradesh —   State   Seal …   Wikipedia

  • Seoni (Madhya Pradesh) — Seoni redirects here, for a town in Shimla District see Seoni (Himachal Pradesh). Infobox Indian Jurisdiction native name = Seoni | type = city | latd = 22.08 | longd = 79.53 locator position = right | state name = Madhya Pradesh district = Seoni …   Wikipedia

  • Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park — Mollem National Park Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary   national park   IUCN Category II (National Park) …   Wikipedia

  • History of Uttar Pradesh — The history of Uttar Pradesh, an Indian State, can be divided into five periods: (1) the prehistory Early Vedic Period(up to c. 600 BC), (2) the Buddhist Hindu period (c. 600 BC to c. AD 1200), (3) the Muslim period (c. 1200 to c. 1857), (4) the… …   Wikipedia

  • Geography of Uttar Pradesh — Uttar Pradesh is India s fifth largest and most populous state, located in the north western part of the country. It spreads over a large area, and the plains of the state are quite distinctly different from the high mountains in the north. The… …   Wikipedia

  • List of cities and towns in India — This is a list of cities in India whose population is above 20,000. According to Census 2001 data cities and towns are broadly classified as: Class I – Population greater than 100,000 Class II – Population between 80,000 – 99,999 Class III –… …   Wikipedia

  • Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests — The Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests are a tropical dry forest ecoregion of central India. The ecoregion lies mostly in Madhya Pradesh state, but extends into portions of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh states. Contents 1 Setting …   Wikipedia

  • States and territories of India — India is a federal union of states[1] comprising twenty eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Himajal Pradesh — Himachal Pradesh हिमाचल प्रदेश Status: Bundesstaat Hauptstadt: Shimla (199.000 Einwohner) Fläche: 55.673 km² …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Four-horned Antelope — Male Four horned Antelope Female Four horned Antelope …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”