- European Community merger law
European Community merger law is a part of the
law of the European Unionwhich regulates which firms can merge with one another. It is part of competition lawwhich is designed to ensure that firms do not acquire dominant holdings on the free marketso as to harm the interests of consumers, the economy and society as a whole.
Mergers and acquisitions are regulated by competition laws because they concentrate economic power in the hands of a smaller number of parties. Oversight by the European Union has been enacted under Merger Regulation 139/2004, known as the "ECMR". [The authority for the Commission to pass this regulation is found under Articles 3(1)(g), 308 and 83 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC) ] The law requires that firms proposing to merge either get pre-approval from the relevant government authority, or face
demergerif they proceed anyway and the merger is later found to lessen competition. Merger regulation thus often involves predicting potential market conditions rather than measuring the effects of a combination after the fact. The standard set by the law is whether a combination would "significantly impede effective competition... in particular as a result of the creation or strengthening of a dominant position..." [Art. 2(3) Reg. 129/2005]
Businesses are motivated to merge in order to reduce the
transaction costs of negotiating bilateral contracts, [cite journal |last=Coase |first=Ronald H.|authorlink=Ronald H. Coase |year=1937|month=November |title=The Nature of the Firm |journal=Economica |volume=4 |issue=16| pages=386–405| url=http://www.cerna.ensmp.fr/Enseignement/CoursEcoIndus/SupportsdeCours/COASE.pdf |accessdate=2007-02-10 |doi=10.1111/j.1468-0335.1937.tb00002.x] and to take advantage of increased economies of scale.
market shareand size also increases market power, strengthening the negotiating position of the business. This is good for the firm, but can be bad for competitors and downstream entities (such as distributors or consumers). A monopolyis the most extreme cases, where prices might be raised to the monopoly priceinstead of the lower equilibrium price. An oligopolyis another potentially undesirable situation in which limited competition may allow higher prices than a market with more participants.
Under EC law, a concentration exists when a...
"change of control on a lasting basis results from (a) the merger of two or more previously independent undertakings... (b) the acquisition... if direct or indirect control of the whole or parts of one or more other undertakings." Art. 3(1), Regulation 139/2004, the
European Community Merger Regulation
This usually means that one firm buys out the
shares of another. The reasons for oversight of economic concentrations by the state are the same as the reasons to restrict firms who abuse a position of dominance, only that regulation of mergers and acquisitions attempts to deal with the problem before it arises, "ex ante" prevention of creating dominant firms. In the case of [T-102/96] "Gencor Ltd v. Commission"  ECR II-753 the EU Court of First Instancewrote merger control is there "to avoid the etablishment of market structures which may create or strengthen a dominant position and not need to control directly possible abuses of dominant positions."
ignificantly impeding competition
What amounts to a substantial lessening of, or significant impediment to competition is usually answered through empirical study. The market shares of the merging companies can be assessed and added, although this kind of analysis only gives rise to presumptions, not conclusions. [see, for instance para 17, "Guidelines on the assessment of horizontal mergers" (2004/C 31/03)] Something called the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is used to calculate the "density" of the market, or what concentration exists. Aside from the maths, it is important to consider the product in question and the rate of technical innovation in the market. [C-68/94 "France v. Commission"  ECR I-1375, para. 219] A further problem of collective dominance, or
oligopolythrough "economic links" ["Italian Flat Glass"  ECR ii-1403] can arise, whereby the new market becomes more conducive to collusion. It is relevant how transparent a market is, because a more concentrated structure could mean firms can coordinate their behaviour more easily, whether firms can deploy deterrants and whether firms are safe from a reaction by their competitors and consumers. [T-342/99 "Airtours plc v. Commission"  ECR II-2585, para 62] The entry of new firms to the market, and any barriers that they might encounter should be considered. ["Mannesmann, Vallourec and Ilva"  CMLR 529, OJ L102 21 April 1994]
Firms who are engaged in a "prima facie" uncompetitive concentration may be able to show that their action nevertheless results in "technical and economic progress" mentioned in Art. 2 of the ECMR. [see the argument put forth in Hovenkamp H (1999) "Federal Antitrust Policy: The Law of Competition and Its Practice", 2nd Ed, West Group, St. Paul, Minnesota. Unlike the authorities however, the courts take a dim view of the efficiencies defence.] Another defence might be that a firm which is being taken over is about to fail or go insolvent, and taking it over leaves a no less competitive state than what would happen anyway. ["Kali und Salz AG v. Commission"  ECR 499] Mergers vertically in the market are rarely of concern, although in "AOL/Time Warner" ["Time Warner/AOL"  4 CMLR 454, OJ L268] the
European Commissionrequired that a joint venture with a competitor Bertelsmannbe ceased beforehand. The EU authorities have also focussed lately on the effect of conglomerate mergers, where companies acquire a large portfolio of related products, though without necessarily dominant shares in any individual market. [e.g. "Guinness/Grand Metropolitan  5 CMLR 760, OJ L288; Many in the US are scathing of this approach, see W. J. Kolasky, ‘Conglomerate Mergers and Range Effects: It’s a long way from Chicago to Brussels’ 9 Nov. 2001, Address before George Mason University Symposium Washington, DC.]
EU authorities' application of merger law in practice has been criticized for acting for protectionist reasons, rather than sound economic reasons.Fact|date=July 2007 For example, the EU blocked a proposed merger of
General Electricand Honeywellon grounds of the possibility of "leverage" in other markets and "portfolio effects", though that economic theory is viewed as discredited in the United States,POV-statement|date=December 2007 and United States regulators found that the merger would improve competition and reduce prices.Fact|date=July 2007 Republican government appointee, Assistant Attorney General Charles James, along with a number of academics, called the EU's use of "portfolio effects" to protect competitors, rather than competition, "antithetical to the goals of antitrust law enforcement." [Charles James, [http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/speeches/9100.htm "International Antitrust in the Bush Administration"] , 2001-09-21] [ George L. Priest, The GE/Honeywell Precedent and Franco Romani, " Wall Street Journal", 2001-06-20, at A1; Hal Varian, [http://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hal/people/hal/NYTimes/2001-06-28.html "Economic Scene; In Europe, GE and Honeywell ran afoul of 19th century thinking"] , " New York Times", 2001-06-28] United States Secretary of the Treasury Paul O'Neill (cabinet member)called the rejection of the GE-Honeywell merger "off the wall" and complained of European Union regulators "They are the closest thing you can find to an autocratic organization that can successfully impose their will on things that one would think are outside their scope of attention." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1411366.stm BBC News] , 2001-06-28]
* Jones, Alison and Sufrin, Brenda (2005) "EC Competition Law: Text, Cases and Materials", Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed. ISBN-10: 0199269971
* Monti, Giorgio (2007) "EC Competition Law", Cambridge University Press, ISBN-10: 0521700752
* Wilberforce, Richard (1966) "The Law of Restrictive Practices and Monopolies", Sweet and Maxwell
* Whish, Richard (2003) "Competition Law", 5th Ed. Lexis Nexis Butterworths, ISBN-10: 0406959501
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