- Violin Concerto (Elgar)
Edward Elgar's Violin Concerto in B minor, Op. 61, is one of his longest orchestral works and has been described as 'the greatest English contribution to the treasury of Romantic violin concertos'. [David Dubal, in The Essential Canon of Classical Music, North Point Press, New York, 2001]
Royal Philharmonic Societyof London commissioned the concerto in 1909, when Elgar was at the height of his fame. It is dedicated to the Austrian virtuoso Fritz Kreislerwho was the soloist at the first performance which took place on 10 November 1910.
Elgar himself was a violinist, but he also called upon his friend W. H. Reed, leader of the
London Symphony Orchestrafor technical advice while writing the concerto, and Kreisler may also have made some influential suggestions [" The Independent", 21 March 2006] .
The première of the concerto was Elgar’s last great popular success. Of his later large-scale works neither the Second Symphony nor "Falstaff" nor the Cello Concerto achieved the immediate popularity of the First Symphony or this concerto.
The score carries the Spanish inscription, "Aqui está encerrada el alma de ....." ("Herein is enshrined the soul of .....")", a quotation from the novel "
Gil Blas" by Alain-René Lesage. This inscription is one of Elgar's enduring enigmas. It might conceivably refer to Elgar himself but Elgar reportedly told a friend that the "soul" was feminine [Michael Stegemann, notes to Deutsche Grammophon CD 445 564-2] .
The mysterious inscription might refer to Julia Worthington, an American friend of the Elgars' [Ibid.] . However, the inscription is now most widely believed to allude to Alice Stuart-Wortley, the daughter of the painter
John Everett Millais. She was Elgar’s dear friend whom he nicknamed "Windflower" [Michael Kennedy, notes to EMI recording CDM7 63795 2] .
Movement by movement
Like most concertos it has three movements. They are marked:
The work is on a very large scale for a concerto, taking between forty-five and fifty-five minutes to perform (see 'Recordings' below for indicative timings).
The first movement, in traditional
sonata form, begins with a long orchestral exposition of the themes, before the violin enters with a restatement of the first subject.
The second movement, in the key of B flat, has a shorter orchestral prelude, and is mostly quiet and songful, but rises to an impassioned climax.
The last movement begins with a quiet but strenuous violin passage, accompanied by the orchestra, with many
double stops and fast arpeggios; themes from the first and second movements are recalled and then, as the movement seems to be heading for a conventional finish, there is an unexpected and unconventional accompanied cadenzain which the orchestra supports the solo with a pizzicato tremolandothrumming effect. This cadenza, though demanding to perform, is not the usual virtuoso showpiece: it is the emotional and structural climax of the whole work. Themes from earlier in the work are restated and finally the concerto ends in a characteristic blaze of orchestral sound.
Elgar said of the work, 'It's good! awfully emotional! too emotional, but I love it.' [Michael Kennedy, "op cit"]
A version of the concerto was recorded in 1916, using the acoustic process, the technical limitations of which necessitated drastic rearrangement of the score. The soloist was
Marie Hall, and the unnamed orchestra was conducted by the composer.
Electrical recording, introduced in the 1920s, gave a greatly improved dynamic range and realism, and the two leading English record companies, Columbia and HMV both made recordings of the concerto that remain in the catalogue. The first complete recording was made in 1929 for Columbia by
Albert Sammonswith the New Queen’s Hall Orchestra conducted by Sir Henry Wood.
HMV hoped to record the work with Kreisler, but he proved elusive (believing Elgar to be a poor conductor) [ "
The Gramophone" November 1989] and HMV’s producer, Fred Gaisberg, turned instead to the young Yehudi Menuhin: cquote2|In spite of the existence of a magnificent recording of his Violin Concerto by Albert Sammons, whose authority and interpretation of this greatest English work for violin will never be bettered, I had a great ambition to have Sir Edward himself conduct the work. As a youthful and pliant performer without prejudice, who would respond best to his instruction, I selected Yehudi Menuhin as the most promising soloist. [Fred Gaisberg, "Music on Record", Robert Hale, London 1946]
The recording was made at EMI’s Abbey Road Studio 1 in 1932 and has remained in print on 78, LP and CD ever since.
These two recordings typify the two contrasting approaches to the work that have existed ever since: Sammons and Wood, in a brisk performance, take just over 43 minutes to play the work; Menuhin and Elgar, in a more overtly expressive reading take almost 50 minutes.
Other recordings of the monaural era include those by
Jascha Heifetz(1949) and Alfredo Campoli (1954). Both these performances are in the Sammons/Wood tradition, taking, respectively, approximately 42 and 45 minutes.
Many modern stereo recordings favour the slower approach of Menuhin and Elgar. Menuhin himself in his stereo remake in 1965 was slightly quicker (just under 48 minutes) than he had been in 1932, but
Pinchas Zukermanin his two studio versions took a little over 50 minutes in his first recording and a little under 49 in his second. Both of Nigel Kennedy’s recordings play for nearly 54 minutes. Itzhak Perlman’s is slightly faster, at just over 47 minutes; and Dong-Suk Kang’s takes under 45 minutes.
A recording released in 2006 used a text based on Elgar’s manuscript score rather than the published version. Philippe Graffin, the soloist who performed the manuscript score, counted more than 40 places where the published version differs from Elgar’s original. The changes are thought to have been suggested by Kreisler to make the solo part more effective. ["The Independent", "op cit"] (Reviewing the CD in June 2006 "The Gramophone"’s critic Edward Greenfield observed, ‘some that the differences are very small…I have to confess that had I not been told, I might have appreciated only two of them’.)
*Marie Hall/orchestra/Sir Edward Elgar (cut version acoustically recorded)
*Albert Sammons/New Queen’s Hall Orchestra/ Sir Henry Wood
*Yehudi Menuhin/London Symphony Orchestra/Sir Edward Elgar
*Jascha Heifetz/London Symphony Orchestra/Sir Malcolm Sargent
London Philharmonic Orchestra/Sir Adrian Boult
*Yehudi Menuhin/New Philharmonia Orchestra/Sir Adrian Boult
Pinchas Zukerman/London Philharmonic Orchestra/ Daniel Barenboim
Hugh Bean/ Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra/Sir Charles Groves
Kyung-Wha Chung/London Philharmonic Orchestra/Sir Georg Solti
Ida Haendel/London Philharmonic Orchestra/Sir Adrian Boult
Itzhak Perlman/ Chicago Symphony Orchestra/Daniel Barenboim
Nigel Kennedy/London Philharmonic Orchestra/ Vernon Handley
Dong-Suk Kang/Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra/ Adrian Leaper
St Louis Symphony Orchestra/ Leonard Slatkin
City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra/Sir Simon Rattle
Hilary Hahn/London Symphony Orchestra/Sir Colin Davis
*Philippe Graffin/Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra/Vernon Handley (original Elgar score)
James Ehnes/ Philharmonia Orchestra/ Sir Andrew Davis
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/classical/elgar/notes/note_violinconc.shtml Violin Concerto in B minor, Op. 61 (1905–10)]
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