IUPAC_name = Human urokinase
Caption = The protease domain from urokinase in complex with and
CAS_number = 9039-53-6
ATC_prefix = B01
ATC_suffix = AD04
DrugBank = BTD00030
C=1376 | H=2145 | N=383 | O=406 | S=18
molecular_weight = 31126.5 g/mol
routes_of_administration = protein
Name = plasminogen activator, urokinase
HGNCid = 9052
Symbol = PLAU
EntrezGene = 5328
OMIM = 191840
RefSeq = NM_002658
UniProt = P00749
ECnumber = 18.104.22.168
Chromosome = 10
Arm = q
Band = 24
Urokinase (Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA), is a
serine protease(EC number|22.214.171.124). Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive zymogenform of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade which, depending on the physiological environment participate in thrombolysisor extracellular matrixdegradation. This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.
Urokinase is a 411 residue
protein, consisting of three domains: the serine protease domain, the kringle domainand the growth factor domain. Urokinase is synthesized as a zymogen form (prourokinase or single chain urokinase), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between L158 and I159. The two resulting chains are kept together by a disulfidebond.
The most important inhibitors of urokinase are the
serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2(PAI-2), which inhibits the protease activity irreversibly. In the extracellular matrix urokinase is tethered to the cell membraneby its interaction to the urokinase receptor.
Urokinase and cancer
Elevated expression levels of urokinase and several other components of the
plasminogen activation systemare found to be correlated with tumor malignancy. It is believed that the tissue degradation following plasminogen activation, facilitates tissue invasion and thus contributes to metastasis. This makes urokinase an attractive drug targetand inhibitors have been sought to be used as anticancer agents. However incompatibilities between the human and murinesystem hampers clinical evaluation of these agents. Through its interaction with the urokinase receptor, urokinase affects several other aspects of cancer biology such as cells adhesion, migration and cellular mitoticpathways.
Urokinase is used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive
deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and occluded intravenousor dialysiscannulas. It is also administered intrapleurally to improve the drainage of complicated pleural effusions and empyemas. Recently, Alteplase has replaced urokinase as a thrombolytic drug in infarctation.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.