- Sarocladium oryzae
name = "Sarocladium oryzae"
genus = "
species = "S. oryzae"
binomial = "Sarocladium oryzae"
binomial_authority = (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksw., (1976)
synonyms = "Acrocylindrium oryzae" Sawada, (1922)
"Sarocladium attenuatum" W. Gams & D. Hawksw., (1976)
"Sarocladium oryzae" (Sawada) is a plant pathogen causing the
sheath rotdisease of rice. In culture it produces 0.3–0.627 micrograms of helvolic acidand 0.9–4.8 micrograms of ceruleninper milliliter of culture medium. [cite journal |author=Ayyadurai N, Kirubakaran SI, Srisha S, Sakthivel N |title=Biological and molecular variability of Sarocladium oryzae, the sheath rot pathogen of rice ("Oryza sativa" L.) |journal=Curr. Microbiol. |volume=50 |issue=6 |pages=319–23 |year=2005 |month=June |pmid=15968500 |doi=10.1007/s00284-005-4509-6 |url=] The level of helvolic acid correlated with a higher incidence of sheath rot disease. Rice grains from infected plants were found to contain 2.2 micrograms helvolic acid and 1.75 micrograms of cerulein per gram of infected seeds, which induce chlorosisand reduce the seed viability and seedling health. [cite journal |author=Ghosh MK, Amudha R, Jayachandran S, Sakthivel N |title=Detection and quantification of phytotoxic metabolites of "Sarocladium oryzae" in sheath rot-infected grains of rice |journal=Lett. Appl. Microbiol. |volume=34 |issue=6 |pages=398–401 |year=2002 |pmid=12028418 |doi= |url=] "S. oryzae" has also been known as "Acrocylindrium oryzae" (Sawada). For forty years prior to 2005, a common industrial fungal strain used to manufacture cerulenin was known under the invalidly published designation "Cephalosporium caerulens", but an isolate of the original "C. caerulens" strain KF-140 was subsequently shown to be conspecific with "S. oryzae". [cite journal |author=Bills GF, Platas G, Gams W |title=Conspecificity of the cerulenin and helvolic acid producing 'Cephalosporium caerulens', and the hypocrealean fungus "Sarocladium oryzae" |journal=Mycol. Res. |volume=108 |issue=Pt 11 |pages=1291–300 |year=2004 |month=November |pmid=15587062 |doi= |url=]
* [http://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp Index Fungorum]
* [http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases USDA ARS Fungal Database]
* [http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p1840.htm Rice Diseases in Mississippi: A Guide to Identification] (includes photo of sheath rot)
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