Sarocladium oryzae

Sarocladium oryzae

name = "Sarocladium oryzae"
regnum = Fungi
phylum = Ascomycota
classis = Ascomycetes
subclassis = Incertae sedis
ordo = Incertae sedis
familia = Incertae sedis
genus = "Sarocladium"
species = "S. oryzae"
binomial = "Sarocladium oryzae"
binomial_authority = (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksw., (1976)
synonyms = "Acrocylindrium oryzae" Sawada, (1922)
"Sarocladium attenuatum" W. Gams & D. Hawksw., (1976)

"Sarocladium oryzae" (Sawada) is a plant pathogen causing the sheath rot disease of rice. In culture it produces 0.3–0.627 micrograms of helvolic acid and 0.9–4.8 micrograms of cerulenin per milliliter of culture medium. [cite journal |author=Ayyadurai N, Kirubakaran SI, Srisha S, Sakthivel N |title=Biological and molecular variability of Sarocladium oryzae, the sheath rot pathogen of rice ("Oryza sativa" L.) |journal=Curr. Microbiol. |volume=50 |issue=6 |pages=319–23 |year=2005 |month=June |pmid=15968500 |doi=10.1007/s00284-005-4509-6 |url=] The level of helvolic acid correlated with a higher incidence of sheath rot disease. Rice grains from infected plants were found to contain 2.2 micrograms helvolic acid and 1.75 micrograms of cerulein per gram of infected seeds, which induce chlorosis and reduce the seed viability and seedling health. [cite journal |author=Ghosh MK, Amudha R, Jayachandran S, Sakthivel N |title=Detection and quantification of phytotoxic metabolites of "Sarocladium oryzae" in sheath rot-infected grains of rice |journal=Lett. Appl. Microbiol. |volume=34 |issue=6 |pages=398–401 |year=2002 |pmid=12028418 |doi= |url=] "S. oryzae" has also been known as "Acrocylindrium oryzae" (Sawada). For forty years prior to 2005, a common industrial fungal strain used to manufacture cerulenin was known under the invalidly published designation "Cephalosporium caerulens", but an isolate of the original "C. caerulens" strain KF-140 was subsequently shown to be conspecific with "S. oryzae". [cite journal |author=Bills GF, Platas G, Gams W |title=Conspecificity of the cerulenin and helvolic acid producing 'Cephalosporium caerulens', and the hypocrealean fungus "Sarocladium oryzae" |journal=Mycol. Res. |volume=108 |issue=Pt 11 |pages=1291–300 |year=2004 |month=November |pmid=15587062 |doi= |url=]


External links

* [ Index Fungorum]
* [ USDA ARS Fungal Database]
* [ Rice Diseases in Mississippi: A Guide to Identification] (includes photo of sheath rot)

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