- John Nash (architect)
John Nash (
18 January 1752– 13 May 1835) was an English architectresponsible for much of the layout of Regency London.
Lambeth, London as the son of a Welsh millwright, Nash trained with architect Sir Robert Taylor, but his own career was initially unsuccessful and short-lived. After inheriting a substantial fortune, he retired to live in Wales, but he lost much of his fortune through bad investments and was declared bankrupt in 1783. This forced him to resume work as an architect, focusing initially on the design of country houses, in a successful partnership with landscape garden designer, Humphry Repton; the pair would collaborate to carefully place the Nash-designed building in grounds designed by Repton. Eventually, Nash felt able to return to work in London, in 1792.
Nash came to work in
Irelandas an architect after 1793. He designed Caledon House, County Tyrone; Killymoon Castle, near Cookstown, County Tyrone, and Kilwater Castle, Larne, County Antrim. [cite web | title=John Nash | work=Dictionary of Ulster Biography | url=http://www.ulsterbiography.co.uk/biogsN.htm | accessdate=2008-07-09]
Nash's work came to the attention of the
Prince Regent(later King George IV) who, in 1811 commissioned him to develop an area then known as MarylebonePark. With the Regent's backing (and major inputs from Repton), Nash created a master plan for the area, put into action from 1818 onwards, which stretched from St James’s northwards and included Regent Street, Regent's Parkand its neighbouring streets, terraces and crescents of elegant town houses and villas. Nash did not complete all the detailed designs himself; in some instances, completion was left in the hands of other architects such as James Pennethorneand the young Decimus Burton. Nash was employed by the Prince to develop his Ocean Pavilion Palace in Brighton, originally designed by Henry Holland. By the early 19th century Nash finished his work on the Ocean Pavilion, which was now transformed into the Royal Pavilion. The Royal Pavilion still stands in Brighton today.
Nash was also a director of the
Regent's CanalCompany set up in 1812 to provide a canallink from west London to the River Thamesin the east. Nash's masterplan provided for the canal to run around the northern edge of Regent's Park; as with other projects, he left its execution to one of his assistants, in this case James Morgan. The first phase of the Regent's Canal opened in 1816.
Further London commissions for Nash followed, including the remodelling of Buckingham House to create
Buckingham Palace(1825-1835), plus the Royal Mewsand Marble Arch(originally designed as a triumphal archto stand at the entrance to Buckingham Palace. There is an urban myth which says that it was found to be too narrow for the royal State Coach and was moved in 1851 to its current location at the western end of Oxford Street). The arch was moved when the fourth wing was built, designed by Edward Blore, at the request of Queen Victoria whose growing family required additional domestic space. Marble Arch became the entrance to Hyde Park and The Great Exhibition.
Other London projects included:
St. James's Park
*the Church of
All Souls, Langham Place(1822-25)
Carlton House Terrace(1827-1833)
Outside London, his work included:
*rebuilding of the Royal Pavilion at
East Cowes Castleon the Isle of Wight– his home for many years
Blaise Hamlet, Bristol
Grovelands Park, Enfield, Middlesex
Llanerchaeron, Ciliau Aeron, Ceredigion
Foley House, Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire
Cronkhill, near Shrewsbury, Shropshire. First Italianate villa in Britain.
Caerhays castle, Cornwall (1808) [Pevsner, Nikolaus "Cornwall"; "Buildings of England" series. (1951;1970) (rev. Enid Radclffe) ISBN 0-300-09589-9 Page 192]
Killymoon Castle, Cookstown, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland
Swiss Cottage, Cahir, County Tipperary, IrelandHe died and was buried at St James Church, Cowes. The changes wrought by John Nash on the streetscape of London are documented in the film, "John Nash and London", featuring Edmund N. Baconand based on sections of his book Design of Cities.
* [http://www.wisdomportal.com/Dates/1752Jupiter.html WisdomPortal.com]
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