- Grand Opera
Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century
operagenerally in four or five acts, characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage-effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events. The term is particularly applied to certain productions of the Paris Opérafrom the late 1820s to around 1850, and has sometimes been used to designate the Paris Opéra itself, but is also used in a broader application in respect of contemporary or later works of similar monumental proportions from France, Germany, Italy and other European countries. [See definition in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "Grand opera" and "Opera"] .
Parisat the turn of the nineteenth century drew in many composers, both French and foreign, and especially those of opera. Several Italians working during this period including Luigi Cherubinidemonstrated that the use of recitative was suited for the powerful dramas that were being written. Others, such as Gaspare Spontini, wrote works to glorify Napoleon. These operas were composed on a suitably grand scale for the Emperor. Other factors which led to Parisian supremacy at operatic spectacle was the ability of the large Paris Opérato stage sizeable works and recruit leading stage-painters, designers and technicians, and the long tradition of French ballet and stagecraft. The first theatre performance ever lit by gas, for example, was "Aladino" at the Opéra in 1823; and the theatre had on its staff the innovative designers Duponchel, Cicéri and Daguerre.
Several operas by
Gaspare Spontini, Luigi Cherubini, and Gioacchino Rossinican be regarded as precursors to French grand opera. These include Spontini's " La vestale" (1807) and Fernand Cortez(1809, revised 1817), Cherubini's " Les Abencérages" (1813), and Rossini's " Le siège de Corinthe" (1827) and " Moise" (1828). All of these have some of the characteristics of size and spectacle that are normally associated with French grand opera. Another important forerunner was " Il crociato in Egitto" by Meyerbeer, who eventually became the acknowledged king of the Grand Opera genre. In "Il crociato", which was produced by Rossini in Paris in 1825 after success in Venice, Florenceand LondonMeyerbeer succeeded in blending Italian singing-style with an orchestral style derived from his German training, introducing a far wider range of musical theatre effects than traditional Italian opera. Moreover, "Il crociato" with its exotic historical setting, onstage bands, spectacular costumes and themes of culture clash, exhibited many of the features on which the popularity of Grand Opera would be based.
Ballet in Grand Opera
A notable feature of Grand Opera as it developed in Paris through the 1830s was the presence of a lavish ballet, to appear at or near the beginning of its second act. This was required, not for aesthetic reasons, but to satisfy the demands of the Opera's wealthy and aristocratic patrons, who were more interested in the dancers themselves than in the opera, and did not want their regular meal-times disturbed. The ballet therefore became an important element in the social prestige of the Opéra [see Crosten, pp. 31-32] . Composers who did not comply with this tradition might suffer as a consequence, as did
Richard Wagnerwith his attempt to stage a revised "Tannhäuser" as a Grand Opera in Paris in 1861, which had to be withdrawn after three performances, partly because the ballet was in Act I.
The first Grand Operas (1828-1829)
Grand Opera 1828-1850The first opera of the Grand Opera canon is, by common consent, "
La muette de Portici" (1828) by Daniel Francois Auber. This tale of revolution set in Naplesin 1647, (and ending with an eruption of Vesuviusinto which the heroine precipitates herself), embodied the musical and scenic senasationalism which were to be Grand Opera's hallmark. The libretto for "La muette" was by Eugène Scribe, a dominant force in French theatre of the time who specialised in melodramatic versions (often involving extremes of coincidence) of historical topics which were well-tailored for the public taste of the time. This was his first libretto for the Opéra; he was to write or be associated with many of the libretti of the most successful Grand Operas which followed. "La muette"'s reputation was enhanced by its being the touchpaper for a genuine revolution when it was produced in Brusselsin 1830.
In 1829 this was followed by Rossini's swan-song "Guillaume Tell". The resourceful Rossini. having largely created a style of Italian opera to which European theatre had been in thrall, recognised the potential of new technology, larger theatres and orchestras and modern instrumentation and proved in this work that he could rise to meet them in this undoubted Grand Opera. But his comfortable financial position, and the change in political climate after the
July revolution, persuaded him to quit the field, and this was his last public composition.
The golden age of Grand Opera - 1830-1850
After the Revolution, the new regime determined to
privatisethe previously State-run Opéra and the winner of the contract was a businessman who acknowledged that he knew nothing of music, Veron. However he soon showed himself extremely shrewd at discerning public taste by investing heavily in the Grand Opera formula. His first new production was a work long contracted from Meyerbeer, whose premiere had been delayed by the Revolution. This was fortunate for both Veron and Meyerbeer - as Berliozcommented, Meyerbeer had 'not only the luck to be talented, but the talent to be lucky' [Hector Berlioz, tr. D. Cairns, "Memoirs", London ,1969. p. 569] . His new opera " Robert le diable" chimed well with the liberal sentiments of 1830s France. Moreover, its potent mixture of melodrama, spectacle, lubricity (including a ballet of the ghosts of debauched nuns) and dramatic arias and choruses went down extremely well with the new leaders of taste, the affluent bourgeoisie. The success of "Robert" was as spectacular as its production.
Over the next few years, Veron brought on Auber's "Gustave III" (1833, libretto by Scribe, later adapted for
Verdi's " Un ballo in maschera)" and Fromental Halévy's " La juive" (1835, libretto also by Scribe), and commissioned Meyerbeer's next opera " Les Huguenots" (1836, libretto by Scribe and Deschamps), whose success was to prove the most enduring of all Grand Operas during the 19th century.
Having made a fortune in his stewardship of the Opéra, Veron cannily handed on his concession to Duponchel, who continued his winning formula, if not to such financial reward. Between 1838 and 1850 the Paris Opéra staged numerous Grand Operas of which the most notable were Halévy's "
La reine de Chypre" (1841) and "Charles VI" (1843), Donizetti's " La favorite" (1840) and " Dom Sébastien" (1843, librettos by Scribe), and Meyerbeer's Le prophète(1849)(Scribe again). 1847 saw the premiere of Giuseppe Verdi's first opera for Paris, " Jérusalem", an adaptation, meeting the Grand Opera conventions, of his earlier " I Lombardi alla prima crociata".
For production statistics of Grand Opera in Paris, see
List of performances of French Grand Operas at the Paris Opéra.
Grand Operas of the 1850s and 1860s
The most significant development - indeed transformation - of Grand Opera after the 1850s was its handling by
Giuseppe Verdi, whose " Les vêpres siciliennes" (1855), proved to be more widely given in Italy and other Italian language opera houses than in France. The taste for luxury and extravagance at the French theatre declined after the 1848 revolution and new productions on the previous scale were not so commercially viable. The popular "Faust" ( 1859) by Charles Gounodstarted life as an opéra comique, and did not become a "grand opera" until rewritten in the 1860s. " Les Troyens" by Hector Berlioz(composed from 1856- 1858, later revised), was not given a full performance until nearly a century after Berlioz had died, although portions had been staged before - but the spirit of this work is far removed from the bourgeois taste of the Grand Operas of the 1830s and 1840s.
By the 1860s taste for the grand style was returning. The first significant entry was "
La reine de Saba" by Charles Gounod. This was rarely given in its entirety, but the big tenor aria, "Inspirez-moi, race divine" was made famous in a recording by Enrico Caruso. The great Meyerbeer died on 2 May, 1864, thus his " L'Africaine" was premiered posthumously in 1865. Giuseppe Verdireturned to Paris for what many see as the greatest French grand opera ever, the immortal " Don Carlos" (1867). Massenet's "Le roi de Lahore" is assessed by Grove as 'the last grand opera to have a great and widespread success'. [Grove, "Opera"] Ambroise Thomas contributed his "Hamlet" in 1868, and finally, to close out the decade, the revised "Faust" was premiered at the Opéra in its Grand Opera format.
Late French Grand Operas
During the 1870s and 1880s, a new generation of French composers continued to produce large scale works in the tradition of Grand Opera but often breaking its melodramatic boundaries. The influence of
Wagner's operas began to be felt, and it is a moot point whether these works can be simply called Grand Opera. Jules Massenethad at least two large scale historical works to his credit (" Le roi de Lahore" (Paris, 1877), and "Le Cid" (Paris, 1885). Other works in this category include "Polyeucte" (Paris, 1878) by Charles Gounodand "Henry VIII" by Camille Saint-Saëns(Paris, 1883). Ernest Reyerhad started to compose his "Sigurd" years before, but, unable to get it premiered in Paris, settled for La Monnaiein Brussels (1884). What may have been one of the last successful French grand operas was by an unfamiliar composer, Emile Paladilhe: " Patrie!" (Paris, 1886). It ran up nearly 100 performances in Paris, and quite a few in Belgium, where the action takes place, but has since disappeared without a trace.
Decline of French Grand Opera
There are three distinctly separate aspects to the decline of French grand opera:
* Fewer new operas were being composed in the grand opera format as the style became less fashionable (and more expensive to produce)
* The disappearance of works from the repertory to make way for new fashions (e.g.
* Contempt for the format by the supporters of Wagnerian opera.
The expensive artefacts of Grand Opera (which also demanded expensive singers) - "Les Huguenots" was known as 'the night of the seven stars' because of its requirement of seven top-grade artistes - meant that they were economically the most vulnerable as new repertoire developed. Hence they lost pride of place at the Paris Opéra (especially when many of the original stage-sets were lost in fire in the late 19th century). But there were other theatres in Paris, apart from the Opéra itself, such as the
Gaité Lyrique, which would engage artists of the first rank and give the old favorites. " La Juive" was performed there regularly, and, in 1917, they devoted an entire season to these older works, including Halévy's " La reine de Chypre".
However, Wagner had aggressively attacked Grand Opera in his article "
Das Judentum in der Musik" (1850, revised and expanded 1868) and more specifically in his long essay "Oper und Drama ('Opera and Drama')."(1851). With the rise in influence of Wagnerian music and ideas, several French composers, notably Vincent d'Indy, Ernest Chausson, and Gabriel Fauré, sought to follow Wagner with works like " Fervaal", " Le roi Arthus" and " Pénélope", respectively.
French Grand Opera today
Today these works are rarely given live performance, as their sheer length and the expense of staging them can still be prohibitive, even for the largest
opera houses. However, they are increasingly being resuscitated for CDrecordings, and many are revived at opera festivals and regional opera houses such as that at Compiègne.
Grand Opera outside France
French Grand Opera was generally well received in Italy, where of course it was always performed in Italian translation.
Italian operas with their own ballet started to become relatively common in the late 1860s and 1870s. Some of these, such as "
Il Guarany" by Antônio Carlos Gomeswere designated as "opera ballo" (i.e. 'danced opera'). Others, such as " La Gioconda" by Amilcare Ponchielliwere not, although they qualified for the description. They constituted an evolution of Grand Opera.
Aida", despite having only four acts, corresponds in many ways to the Grand Opera formula. It has a historical setting, deals with 'culture clash' and contains several ballets as well as its extremely well known Grand March. It was a huge success, both at its world premiere in Cairo and its Italian premiere in Milan, resulting in an increase in the scale of some of the works by other composers that followed it. This was particularly noticeable in works by Gomes (" Fosca" (1873) and " Salvator Rosa" (1874)), Marchetti(especially " Gustavo Wasa" (1875), Ponchielli: (" I Lituani" (1874) and "La Gioconda" (Milan, 1876, revised 1880)) and Lauro Rossi (" La Contessa di Mons" (Turin,1874) .
Other operas on this scale continued to be composed by Italian composers during the 1880s and even 1890s, but with less frequency; examples being
Marchetti's "Don Giovanni d'Austria" (1880) and Ponchielli's " Il Figluol Prodigo" (also 1880) [see chapter on Italian opera by Fiamma Nicolodi in Charlton ((2003), pp. 383-402] .
French Grand Operas were regularly staged by German opera houses; an early article by
Richard Wagnerdepicts German opera managers hurrying to Paris to try to identify the next 'hit'. [Richard Wagner , "A First Night at the Opera", in Robert Jacobs and Geoffrey Skelton, "Wagner Writes from Paris", London, 1973, pp. 163-164] . The Dresden performances of Le prophète(in German) in 1850 were the occasion for a series of articles by Wagner's disciple, Theodor Uhlig, condemning Meyerbeer's style and crudely attributing his alleged aesthetic failure to his Jewish origins, inspiring Wagner to write his anti-Jewish diatribe " Das Judentum in der Musik". But it must be remembered that Wagner never equalled Meyerbeer's great success during his lifetime.
Meyerbeer himself was German by birth, but directed nearly all his mature efforts to success in Paris.
Richard Wagner's " Rienzi", the composer's first success (produced Dresden, 1842) is totally Meyerbeerean in style, Wagner at that time being a sincere admirer of the older composer, who assisted him in arranging performances of "Rienzi" and " Der fliegende Holländer" in Dresden and Berlin. As described above, Wagner attempted in 1860/1861 to recast "Tannhaüser" as a Grand Opera, and this 'Paris version', as later adapted for Vienna, is still frequently produced today. " Götterdämmerung", as noted by George Bernard Shaw[G. B.Shaw, ed. Dan Laurence, "Shaw's Music", 3 vols., London 1981, vol. 3, p. 469] , shows clear traces of some return by Wagner to the Grand Opera tradition, and a case could also be argued for " Die Meistersinger" [See Grove, "Opera".] .
Meyerbeer's only mature German opera, "
Ein Feldlager in Schlesien" is in effect a Singspiel, although Act II has some of the characteristics of grand opera, with a brief ballet and an elaborate march. The opera was eventually transformed by the composer to " L'étoile du nord".
In many German-language houses, especially in
Vienna, where Eduard Hanslickand later Gustav Mahlerchampioned Meyerbeer and Halévy respectively, the operas continued to be performed well into the 20th century. The growth of anti-Semitismin Germany, especially after the NaziParty obtained political power in 1933, spelled however the end of the works of these composers on German stages until modern times when some (e.g. "La Juive" at Vienna) have been revived.
List of performances of French Grand Operas at the Paris Opéra
*Bartlet, M Elizabeth C: "Grand opéra" in 'The
New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie, Macmillan Publishers Limited, London, 1992 ISBN 0-333-73432-7
*Charlton, David: " The Cambridge Guide to Grand Opera ", Cambridge University Press, 2003
*Crosten, William Loren: "French Grand Opera: an Art and a Business", Columbia University, 1948. A landmark text, in many ways still not superseded.
*Gerhard, Anselm: "The Urbanization of Opera: Music Theater in Paris in the Nineteenth Century", University of Chicago Press, 1998
*Huebner, Steven: "French Opera at the Fin de Siécle: Wagnerism, Nationalism, and Style", Oxford University Press, 1999
*Soubies, Albert: "Soixante-sept Ans a L'Opéra en une Page, 1826-1893", Paris, 1893
*Wolff, Stephane: "L'Opéra au Palais Garnier 1875-1962", Paris n.d. but probably 1963
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