infobox UK place
region= South West England
population= 5,280 (Parish, 2001)
constituency_westminster= South East Cornwall
Looe ( _kw. Logh) is a small coastal town and fishing port in the
Caradondistrict of south-east Cornwall, England, UK, with a population of 5,280 (2001 census). It lies around 20 miles west of the city of Plymouthand 7 miles south of Liskeard.
Situated around a small harbour and along a steep-sided valley, Looe is in fact two towns, East Looe and West Looe, connected by bridge across the
River Looewhich flows between them, to reach the sea beside a sandy beach. Off shore to the west, opposite the stonier Hannafore beach, lies the picturesqueSt. George's Island, commonly known as Looe Island.
Prehistory and foundation
Archeological evidence, such as the so-called
Giant's Hedgeand the stone circleat Bin Down (from the Cornish "Bin Dun", meaning " hill fort") on a hill above East Looe, indicates that the area around Looe was inhabited as early as 1000 BC.
At the time of the
Domesday Bookthe manor of Pendrym, which included much of the site of modern-day East Looe, was held by William the Conqueroras part of his own demesneand came to be managed by the Bodgrugan (Bodrigan) family. Land across the river belonged to the manors of Portalla (or Portallant) and Portbyhan (variously spelt Portbyan, Porthbyghan, Porthpyghan, among others).
Shutta, on the steep hillside over East Looe, is known to have been inhabited by the twelfth century. At some time between 1154 and 1189 a
charterwas granted by Henry II to Sir Henry Bodrugan for the town of East Looe. West Looe was given free borough status sometime after this (the first known historical mention of the town dates from 1327) and in the 1230s East Looe gained the right to hold a weekly market and a Michaelmasfair.
In these early days, East Looe may have been a "planted borough", a concept similar to modern
new towns; much of it is laid out in a grid-like pattern. Even today the low-lying parts of Looe suffer frequent flooding when the tides are very high. Most houses in early Looe would have been constructed with the living quarters upstairs, above storage areas for boats, tools and fishing tackle.
Some time before 1144, a
monastic orderbegan using Looe Island, and built a chapelthere; the monks may have provided a rudimentary lighthouseservice using beacons. Another chapel sat opposite on a hillside just outside West Looe; both are now marked only by ruins.
The Church of St. Mary in East Looe was dedicated in 1259 by
Walter Bronscombe, Bishop of Exeter. It fell into disrepair and was rebuilt, commencing 1805, although the original tower still remains.
St. Nicholas' Church in West Looe was in existence before 1336, at which time it was endowed and enlarged. After spells as a Guildhall and schoolhouse, it is now back in its original use, having been substantially restored in 1862.
Development, trade and politics
An early wooden
bridgeover the Looe river was in place by 1411; this burned down and was replaced by the first stone bridge, completed in 1436 and featuring a chapel dedicated to St. Anne in the middle (the current bridge, a seven-arched Victorian bridge, was opened in 1853). By this time Looe had become a major port, one of Cornwall's largest, exporting local tin, arsenicand granite, as well as hosting thriving fishingand boatbuilding industries. The town provided some 20 ships for the siege of Calaisin 1347.
Looe thrived in this era, being both a busy port and situated near one of the main roads from
Londonto Penzance. By this time the textileindustry had come to play an important part in the town's economics, in addition to the traditional boatbuilding and fishing (particularly pilchards and crabs). Trade and transportation to and from thriving Newfoundland also aided the town's success. The Old Guildhall in East Looe is believed to date from around 1500.
Between their incorporation in the mid-1500s (East Looe 1571, West Looe 1553) and the
Great Reform Actof 1832, West Looe and East Looe were renowned examples of rotten boroughs, each returning two MPs to the unreformed House of Commons, despite their tiny populations. For example , one of West-Looe MP has been Admiral Sir Charles Wager, a son and grand-son of Kentish mariners , who began ( 1713-1715 ) and ended ( 1741-1743 ) here his political career.
The 19th century
By the start of the 1800s, Looe's fortunes were in decline. War against
Napoleonhad taken its toll of the country; in 1803 the town formed a volunteer company to man guns in defence against attack from the French, and the blockade of 1808, preventing the Looe fleet from reaching their pilchard-fishing ground, put considerable pressure on the town. In 1805 the old St. Mary's Chapel (apart from the tower) had to be demolished due to dilapidation, and in 1817 the town was badly damaged by heavy storms and flooding.
With the building of the
Liskeard and Looe Union Canallinking Looe to Liskeard in 1828, and the development of booming coppermines in the Caradonarea from 1837, Looe's fortunes began to pick up again. The canal was used first to transport lime from Walesfor use in Cornish farming, and later to carry copper and granite between the railhead at Liskeard (from where rail links reached to the Cheesewringon Bodmin Moor) and the port at Looe. In 1856 the large quay of East Looe was built to handle the demands of the shipping trade, and in 1860, with the canal unable to keep up with demand, a railway was built linking Looe to Moorswaternear Liskeard, along the towpathof the canal, which was used less and less until, by 1910, traffic ceased entirely. The railway was later linked to Liskeard proper, and as the mining boom came to an end, it began carrying passengers in 1879.
In 1866 a lifeboat station had been established on East Looe beach, and in 1878 a new Town Hall was built, the present-day Guildhall. Around this time recommendations were made that the two towns be merged under one governing body, and despite much protest the Looe Urban District Council was formed in 1898 to govern the whole of Looe.
The 20th century
With the Victorian fashion for seaside holidays, Looe had become a tourist town, with nearby
Talland Baybeing dubbed "the playground of Plymouth". This trend continued throughout the 20th century; more and more hotels and tourist facilities were built in the town, and Looe grew and prospered, with peaks in fishing and boatbuilding following the First and Second World Wars.
Looe remains a fishing town, and several fish dealers operate from the docks of East Looe. With its fleet of small fishing boats returning their catches to port daily, Looe has a reputation for producing excellent fresh fish. The town is also a centre for
sharkfishing, and is the home of the Shark Angling Club of Great Britain.
Looe's main business today is, however,
tourism, with much of the town given over to hotels, guest houses and holiday homes, along with a large number of pubs, restaurants, and shops selling beach equipment, ice creamand Cornish pasties. Inland from Looe lie many campingand caravan sites, as well as a famous Woolly monkeysanctuary. Other local attractions include the beaches, sailing, fishing and diving, and spectacular coastal walks (especially that via Tallandto Polperro. In the area are several stately homes, including Antony House, Cotehele, Mount Edgcumbe, and Lanhydrock House, as well as the Eden Projectnear St Austell.
Outside the busy summer months, the town remains a centre for shopping and entertainment for local villages. There is a tradition of the townsfolk wearing
fancy dresson New Year's Eve, when the streets throng with revellers in inventive outfits. Looe is in the top 10 places in the UK to celebrate New Year.
East Looe centres on its broad sandy beach, with the distinctive Banjo Pier, a new Lifeboat station and St. Mary's Church. Stretching back from here is a grid of narrow streets forming the main business area of the town, packed with many small shops, restaurants and pubs, and the Old Guildhall, now a
museum. Along the estuarylies the quay, with several fish dealers. Towards the bridge lies the Victorian Guildhall, and just north of the bridge the railway station. This is the terminus of the Looe Valley branch line to Liskeard(at Liskeard, the line connects with the main Plymouthto Penzance Great Western Main Line).
On the hilltop above East Looe lies Shutta, and beyond that the Sunrising
housing estateand [http://www.looe.cornwall.sch.uk Looe Community School] . Along the cliffs to the east is Plaidy beach, and past there is the bay and village of Millendreathwith another beach.
West Looe spreads west from the bridge on the
PolperroRoad towards Sclerder, and along the river south of the bridge, with hotels, restaurants and boarding houses along the waterfront and houses climbing the perilous cliff above, towards a cluster of shops and businesses and the Church of St. Nicholas.
Further to south along the coast road is Hannafore Point, marking the edge of Looe Harbour, with to the west the wide, stony Hannafore beach, facing across a narrow channel to Looe Island (officially called St. George's Island). Slightly inland is the hamlet of Portlooe. Beyond lies a coastal path leading to the hamlets of Porthallow and
Talland, and from there on to Polperro.
On the high ground looking over the rest of both East and West Looe there are many modern houses and a recreational area called 'The Downs'
Port and Harbour
Looe is being regenerated, like many other ports to be fit for purpose, to serve as a small cargo port.
* [http://www.secta.org.uk/webcam.htm Live Webcam of East Looe and Town Beach, from West Looe]
* [http://www.looedirectory.co.uk Holiday accommodation and businesses]
* [http://www.looetowncouncil.gov.uk Looe Town Council]
* [http://looeoldcornwallsoc.com/default.aspx Looe OCS]
* [http://www.visit-southeastcornwall.co.uk Inspected Accommodation in Looe]
* [http://www.looe.cornwall.sch.uk Looe Community School & Performing Arts College]
* [http://www.visitlooe.com/ Local accommodation]
* [http://www.looeisland.com Looe Island Website]
* [http://www.looe.co.uk/attractions.htm Informative website hosted by a local hotel]
* [http://www.looecornwall.com Local Chamber of Commerce website]
* [http://looe.com Local business portal]
* [http://www.looe.cornwall.sch.uk/about_looe.htm Looe information from Looe School]
* [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/Cornwall/Looe/index.html Various historical and genealogical data]
* [http://www.buttervilla.com/lma/ The Looe Maritime Archive an interactive multimedia project with images, sounds and videos]
* [http://www.geocities.com/teammanley/CaradonRail/Companys.htm#LLUC Information about the canal and railway]
* [http://www.monkeysanctuary.org The Monkey Sanctuary's website]
* [http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/gallery.php?gid=181 Photos of Looe]
* [http://www.picturesof-cornwall.co.uk/looe/ Photos of Looe]
* [http://crocat.cornwall.gov.uk/dserve/dserve.exe?dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqCmd=Overview.tcl&dsqSearch=((text)='looe') Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Looe]
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/England/Cornwall/Looe/ Links to other sites]
* [http://www.sharkanglingclubofgreatbritain.org.uk Shark Angling Club of Great Britain]
* [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=t33ZkDL3juQC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=%22Topographical+and+historical+sketches+of+the+boroughs+of+East+and+West+Looe%22+gilbert&source=web&ots=2efGL5JvjD&sig=zX3P6Gb1rkwgpHYXqA2puj8lJGw&hl=en#PPP8,M1 Thomas Bond's "Topographical and historical sketches of the boroughs of East and West Looe, in the county of Cornwall" (1823) - available online on GoogleBooks] .
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