- Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption
The decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption is a
computational hardness assumptionabout a certain problem involving discrete logarithms in cyclic groups. It is used as the basis to prove the security of many cryptographic protocols, most notably the ElGamal and Cramer-Shoup cryptosystems.
Consider a (multiplicative)
cyclic groupof order , and with generator . The DDH assumption states that, given and for randomly-chosen , the value "looks like" a random element in .
This intuitive notion is formally stated by saying that the following two probability distributions are computationally indistinguishable (in the
* , where and are randomly and independently chosen from .
* , where are randomly and independently chosen from .
Triples of the first kind are often called DDH triples or DDH tuples.
Relation to Other Assumptions
The DDH assumption is related to the discrete log assumption. If it were possible to efficiently compute discrete logs in , then the DDH assumption would not hold in . Given , one could efficiently decide whether by first taking the discrete log of , and then comparing with .
For this reason, DDH is considered a stronger assumption than discrete log, in the following sense: there are groups for which detecting DDH tuples is easy, but computing discrete logs is believed to be hard. Thus, requiring that the DDH assumption holds in a group is a more restricting requirement.
The DDH assumption is also related to the
Computational Diffie-Hellman assumption(CDH). If it were possible to efficiently compute from , then one could easily distinguish the two probability distributions above. Similar to above, DDH is considered a stronger assumption than CDH.
The problem of detecting DDH tuples is random self-reducible, meaning, roughly, that if it is hard for even a small fraction of inputs, it is hard for almost all inputs; if it is easy for even a small fraction of inputs, it is easy for almost all inputs.
Groups For Which DDH is Assumed to Hold
When using a cryptographic protocol whose security depends on the DDH assumption, it is important that the protocol is implementing using groups where DDH is believed to hold:
* The subgroup of th residues modulo a prime , where is also a large prime (also called a
Schnorr group). For the case of , this corresponds to the group of quadratic residues modulo a safe prime.
* The cyclic group of order , where and are safe primes.
* A prime-order
elliptic curveover the field , where is prime, provided has large embedding degree.
Jacobianof a hyper-elliptic curveover the field with a prime number of reduced divisors, where is prime, provided the Jacobian has large embedding degree.
Importantly, the DDH assumption does not hold in the multiplicative group , where is prime. This is because given and , one can efficiently compute the
Legendre symbolof , giving a successful method to distinguish from a random group element.
The DDH assumption does not hold on elliptic curves over with small embedding degree (say, less than ), a class which includes supersingular elliptic curves. This is because the
Weil pairingor Tate pairingcan be used to solve the problem directly as follows: given on such a curve, one can compute and . By the bilinearity of the pairings, the two expressions are equal if and only if modulo the order of . If the embedding degree is large (say around the size of then the DDH assumption will still hold because the pairing cannot be computed. Even if the embedding degree is small, there are some subgroups of the curve in which the DDH assumption is believed to hold.
Diffie-Hellman key exchange
Computational hardness assumptions
Decisional Linear assumption
Dan Boneh, The Decision Diffie-Hellman Problem, ANTS 1998, pp. 48–63 [http://crypto.stanford.edu/~dabo/abstracts/DDH.html] .
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